Friday, May 31, 2019

Shortage of Physicians In Canada Essay examples -- Health Care, Anesth

Introduction to the IssueBy 2056 it is expected one in four Canadians depart be 65 years or older, compared to 13 per cent currently. This will put a huge strain on the countrys health care system (Macleans, 2008 p.2). The time to come of Canadas health care system is at great risk due to its aging population. This is triggering a shortage of physicians, particularly anesthesiologists, in some provinces of Canada (Canadian care for Journal, 2007). Anesthesiologists are specialist physicians who provide critical care to patients in a physical body of health programs operative anesthesia for patients in all surgical subspecialties, nifty pain management, procedural anesthesia, obstetrical care, and high-risk medical management, chronic pain management, resuscitation, advanced airway management, and critical care (Intermountain Healthcare, 2011). The current shortage of anesthesiologists is significantly impacting price of admission to care in each of these health specialties. Thi s paper will address how the lack of foresight in government policies is worsening the shortage of anesthesiologists in Canada. It will discuss how the implementation of electronic health records, formulation of policies which will improve retention and recruitment particularly in rural areas and Challenges in Health gentlemans gentleman Resource Policy and Planning Long Wait Times for SurgeriesThe Canadian health care system promises universality, portability, and accessibility unfortunately, it faces political challenges of meeting public demand and demands to make quality improvements in health care. Canadian patients face barriers to gaining access to clinicians and facilities and face longer arrest times/delays for surgeries. Many patients endure excessive wait times resulting in... ...ills required to practice and to obtain a license in Canada. This process will include written and oral examinations, as well as a clinical discernment. International Medical Graduates who p ass the assessment with satisfactory results, can apply to the College of Physicians and Surgeons to determine their eligibility for conditional registration. And, if they dont pass the assessment additional training by the Faculty of Medicine will be given in order to meet the licensing requirements. This policy would help provinces of Canada increase the number of qualified foreign anesthesiologists, which will help increase the supply of anesthesiologists delivering patient and surgical care in under-serviced areas in other words rural areas. and concentre on strategies to improve accessibility to health care services in rural areas. (Good pointhow would you implement this?)

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Lion in Winter Play review :: essays research papers

The Lion in Winter was performed on Saturday November 22nd was not as good as I horizon it was going to be. The set was a striking design and looked as it should for the time period. However, I didnt like how scenes were changed. The set should birth been designed to encompass more aspects of the scene structure. There was a surge of unnecessary movement on stage when there shouldnt have been. Stage hands should not be seen or heard. Maybe the curtains could have been worn-out for some of their work. The audience shouldnt be made to watch the stage hands reset the stage right after an intermission. I thought it was handled rattling un passe-partoutly. Many times throughout the course of the play I heard pretty much all of the characters stumble over lines. This was not real professional either. All of the characters except for the queen were not into the play they were putting on. It showed thru rightfully badly. Many times during dialogue there were pauses between sentences as if no one and only(a) was aware of what the next line was going to be. Had this been a Broadway play it wouldnt have made it to the second night of production. The only tidy sum that were truly prepared for production were the two characters that werent students. The cueing is what make or breaks a play and it broke this one all the pieces right in front of everyones eyes. The people who went to the show I was at were not laughing when they should be, werent moping with the characters like they should have been. I felt no life in this performance. It really was a sad dissertation of what I had been told and led to believe was going to be great.Lion in Winter Play review essays research paper The Lion in Winter was performed on Saturday November 22nd was not as good as I thought it was going to be. The set was a great design and looked as it should for the time period. However, I didnt like how scenes were changed. The set should have been designed to encompass more aspec ts of the scene structure. There was a lot of unnecessary movement on stage when there shouldnt have been. Stage hands should not be seen or heard. Maybe the curtains could have been drawn for some of their work. The audience shouldnt be made to watch the stage hands reset the stage right after an intermission. I thought it was handled very unprofessionally. Many times throughout the course of the play I heard pretty much all of the characters stumble over lines. This was not very professional either. All of the characters except for the queen were not into the play they were putting on. It showed thru really badly. Many times during dialogue there were pauses between sentences as if no one was aware of what the next line was going to be. Had this been a Broadway play it wouldnt have made it to the second night of production. The only people that were actually prepared for production were the two characters that werent students. The cueing is what make or breaks a play and it broke this one all the pieces right in front of everyones eyes. The people who went to the show I was at were not laughing when they should be, werent moping with the characters like they should have been. I felt no life in this performance. It really was a sad dissertation of what I had been told and led to believe was going to be great.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Overcoming Problems in The Alchemist Essay -- Paulo Coelho

Have you ever encountered problems while trying to reach a goal in your life? In the book The Alchemist, written by Paulo Coelho, a shepherd boy named Santiago overcomes obstacles to reach his personal legend. Throughout the book Santiago encounters many friends to help him fulfill his destiny. Santiago encounters many problems throughout the story. He overcomes them with the help of his friends and his wife-to-be. These problems shape Santiago into a dignified man of many traits.The first two obstacles that Santiago faces be that his father tells him he can not do something that he wants to do and that he wants to pursue his personal legend, but he does not want to meet those that he loves. For example, Santiagos father said, The people who come here have a lot of money to spend, so they can afford to travel. Amongst us the only ones who can travel are shepherds. Everyone is told by their parents and friends that everything we want to do is impossible. Since Santiago did not have money to spend to travel his only woof was then to become a shepherd to fulfill his desire. T...

Distance Education Essay -- essays papers

Distance EducationThe American Education System over the years is developing a immature way of schooling. Many colleges are resorting to this type of learning which is called Distance Education. Distance Education is possible through the new advancements and technologies of computers. This new ideal learning has serious and negatives attributes, raises the differences between teaching in a classroom verses distance education, key players that are involved and schools who are offering this online education. This can be a semiprecious aspect to our society.The computer is one of the most important technologies in this world. Due to the invention of the computer, our society as a whole has changed immensely. We can just issue forth on the internet, which is a new technology and send a person a letter through e-mail, instead of going to the post office, where your letter powerfulness not be delivered for a few days. These technologies have made life easier for everyone especi ally for the college students. If they need to get in touch with their professor, all they have to do is jump on the computer, go to their e-mail account and write up a message to their instructor. The computer has specified programs make particularly for a egress in a class. For example, in ISTC class, it provides a program called Blackboard. With this program, assignments can be given online, without meeting face to face. Because computers are so high-tech these days, you are equal to take college classes online and receives legible credit for it. Since the computer is becoming more progressively advanced everyday, students are able to go into a virtual classroom to babble to their professor and fellow classmates. This virtual classroom is just like a real cla... ...E-Learning Strategies for Media Online Teaching and Engaged Learning. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, Vol 2, pg 17. Retrieved October 13, 2004, from academician Search.5. Meyer, K. (2002). Quality in Distance Education. New York Wiley Periodicals, Inc.6. Palloff, R. (2003). The Virtual Student. San Francisco Jossey-Bass. 7. Saygin, C. (2004). A Web-based Programmable Logic Controller Laboratory forManufacturing Engineering Education. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 24, 590. Retrieved October 11, 2004, Academic Search. 8. Twigg, carol A. (1996, March). Is Technology a Silver Bullet?. Educom Review, Vol 31, pg 28. Retrieved October 16, 2004, from ERIC/EBSCO database.9. Willis, Barry. (1993). Distance Education A Practical Guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJEducational Technology Publications.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Cognitive Development Study Essay -- Piaget’s Theory of Development

IntroductionThe purpose of this study is to analyse, in a practical way, the theories and concepts of cognitive information, across different age-related stages. Using Piagets theory of development, the cognitive ability of two subjects, aged 4 and 18 years, are examined against the milestones of the respective preoperational and formal operational development stages. Cognitive ability is determined by stress on the subjects capability and rationale to group 20 different objects. Based on the research outcomes, comparisons will be made to Piagets theory and the expected learning ability at their age-related development stage.Jean Piaget was considered a pioneer in cognitive research. Piaget developed his theory of cognitive development based on the sequence of changes that occur to the cognition of a somebody as they mature. Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways. Children and adul ts are thought to possess an inbuilt ability to experiences organise their knowledge and into schemes (Lambert, 2007). Jean Piaget outlined schemes as both internalised behavioural patterns and mental understanding (Piaget, 1963, as cited in Berk, 2009). People are thought to actively seek knowledge and information from the touch environment and absorb or process this information using schemes. New knowledge is built on existing knowledge and as a person becomes older these schemes become increasingly more complex. This knowledge adds to a persons intelligence providing them with an adaptation to succeed or survive in the creative activity (Piaget, 1963, as cited in Berk, 2009). Through this reasoning, Piaget determined that learning occurred across ... ...nstra, G., Koelen, M., Kok, F., and Graaf, C. (2007) Cognitive development and childrens perceptions of fruit and vegetables a qualitative study. International Journal of Behavioural maintenance and Physical Activity. 20074 3 0. Published online 2007 July 9. doi 10.1186/1479-5868-4-30 BioMed Central. Web. 12 May 2015.http// HR. Introducing child psychology. UK Edition. Oxford , Blackwell Publishers 2003. p.352.Berk, L E (2009). Child Development. Pearson International Edition. 8th Edition. Boston, MA Allyn & Bacon.Lambert, B. (2007). Cognitive Schemes and Scripts query Evidence from Childrens Drawings. NZ Research in Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 69 80. Cunningham, D. (1996). Jean Piagets Genetic Epistemology. Web. 12 May 2015.http//

Cognitive Development Study Essay -- Piaget’s Theory of Development

IntroductionThe purpose of this study is to analyse, in a virtual(a) way, the theories and concepts of cognitive learning, across different age-related stages. Using Piagets theory of development, the cognitive ability of two subjects, aged 4 and 18 years, are examined against the milestones of the respective preoperational and starchy operational development stages. Cognitive ability is determined by focusing on the subjects capability and rationale to group 20 different objects. Based on the research outcomes, comparisons will be made to Piagets theory and the expected learning ability at their age-related development stage.Jean Piaget was considered a pioneer in cognitive research. Piaget developed his theory of cognitive development based on the sequence of changes that occur to the cognition of a person as they mature. Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways. Children and adul ts are conceit to possess an inbuilt ability to experiences organise their friendship and into schemes (Lambert, 2007). Jean Piaget defined schemes as both internalised behavioural patterns and mental understanding (Piaget, 1963, as cited in Berk, 2009). hoi polloi are thought to actively seek knowledge and information from the surrounding environment and absorb or process this information using schemes. New knowledge is built on existing knowledge and as a person becomes older these schemes become increasingly more complex. This knowledge adds to a persons intelligence providing them with an adaptation to succeed or survive in the world (Piaget, 1963, as cited in Berk, 2009). Through this reasoning, Piaget determined that learning occurred across ... ...nstra, G., Koelen, M., Kok, F., and Graaf, C. (2007) Cognitive development and childrens perceptions of fruit and vegetables a qualitative study. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity. 20074 30. P ublished online 2007 July 9. doi 10.1186/1479-5868-4-30 BioMed Central. Web. 12 May 2015.http// HR. Introducing child psychology. UK Edition. Oxford , Blackwell Publishers 2003. p.352.Berk, L E (2009). Child Development. Pearson International Edition. 8th Edition. Boston, MA Allyn & Bacon.Lambert, B. (2007). Cognitive Schemes and Scripts Research Evidence from Childrens Drawings. NZ Research in Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 69 80. Cunningham, D. (1996). Jean Piagets Genetic Epistemology. Web. 12 May 2015.http//

Monday, May 27, 2019

Globalization: What It Is and How Can We Improve for the Better Essay

You piece of tail interpret globalisation in any charge you want because it is not a word but a way of living, be it bad or good. Where did the term globalization come from and what does it mean for consumers, bodily factories, and workers? How did it affect their lives? Despite all of its different sides, globalization is a good thing but to a certain extent. globalisation is in our world direct and we should instruction on what we should do to regulate globalization to where we are progressing as a whole and not returning to the dark ages. In order to practice these questions we must ask ourselves what does globalization mean? The dictionary definition of globalization is the act of globalizing, or extending to other or all parts of the world. According to Charles Tilly, globalization means an increase in the geographic range of locally consequential social interactions, especially when that increase stretches a significant proportion of all interactions across internation al or intercontinental limits (qtd. in Kesselman 2). It also means it is a worldwide integration and development of countries for the benefit of the world.Economic globalization is a critical different. According to the dictionary, economic globalization refers to increasing interdependence of and national economies across the world through a rapid increase in inter-border endurement of goods, service, technology, and capital. horizontal though we hear about globalization a lot recently, the term is not young. People retain been selling and trading with different nations for thousands of years onwards the Great War (World War I) broke out putting it on hold. In fact, globalization has been around for many another(prenominal) centuries now. It has just been a pattern invariably since man first traded. A new era of globalization started and has continued since the 1980s (Kesselman 4). Many believe globalization to be spread by westerners. Since the new era of trade, the west d id have a large part in influencing globalization, many of which were manufactured automobiles or frameworks. Globalization is often seen as global westernization (Sen 28). pee-pee up though globalization is most commonly viewed as such, it is not entirely an invention of westerners. There has also been a large influence from the easterners too. Globalization can be a good thing. One good reason why globalization is good is because of international trade. Trade has increase and production has increased. Goods and products have been traded internationally around the world. We get bananas, sneakers, and clothes from other countries. When we trade internationally, it helps both sides of the trade. One country gets the profit to help its country out and the other gets its product. The bottom path then is thattrade is beneficial (Wolf 76). An example of trade that is beneficialOf the countries of the world, those in East Asia have grown the fastest and done most to reduce poverty. And they have done so, emphatically, via globalization. Their growth has been based on exportsby taking advantage of the global market for exports and by closing the technology gap. It was not just gaps in capital and other resources that separated the developed from the less-developed countries, but difference in knowledge. East Asian countries took advantage of the globalization of knowledge to reduce these disparities. (Stiglitz 87)Another reason why globalization can be a good thing is knowledge and communications. Without the invention of telephone, it was hard to communicate with one another in the united States. Before phones or telegrams, there were carrier pigeons, letters by mail, or person-to-person conversations. Now almost everywhere around the world has some diverseness of communication cell phones, internet, video chats, blogs, etc. The internet is also a means to free development.Of course, there are plenty of negative impacts of globalization. The spreading of infor mation and the spreading of factories causing severe side effects that could cause destruction throughout the world and already has. As your country puts on the Golden Straitjacket, both things tend to happened your economy grows and your politics shrinks (Friedman 61). In other words, once a country plays into the global economy they have to invent huge sacrifices. Globalization is compulsive by investments, trades, and information. With this rapid form of sharing, it has major effects on the environment and cultures along with the sight.Some of them are even harsh. Flames and smoke swept the cramped textile factory in Baldia Town, a northwestern industrial suburb, creating panic among the hundreds of poorly paid workers who had been making undergarments and plastic toolsalmost killing 300 workers (ur-Rehman, Walsh, and Masood 2012). This is one of the many reasons of the negative impacts of globalization. With globalization many corporations only care about production and how fast they can produce it. Many of the factories, like the one in Baldia, had no safety regulations because the factory wanted more production and more money. Instead of using that money to get better safety for the factory, almost 300 peck died that day.I believe that globalization is a good with regulations in place. There will need to be a lot of rules and regulations of globalizations like safety and health. I believe in free information and knowledge. It should be free in order for us to go and become a better people. Without these rules, things like Baldia happen. Globalization plays a big part in our lives today. Even if we tried, we would not be able to stop globalization. We can only regulate it. With globalization we can move towards a more peaceful future where we can understand each other. To improve safety and have regulations is a way to improve globalization. This will make it a whole lot better. If the factory in Baldia had better safety regulations and pay, then the outcome of the burning would have been different. There would be 300 people alive today.Despite all of its different sides, globalization is a good thing only when it is kept regulated. Globalization is in our world now and we should focus on what we should do to regulate globalization to where we are progressing as a whole and not going backwards. With all of the bad and the good, only we can make the difference however small that change may be it is still a difference for the better. Actions that will help others are the only way to go and understand one another more. With all of our technology and knowledge, we can solve many of the worlds problems if we just were not so greedy. With globalization, we can change the world hopefully for the better.Works CitedFriedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. The politics of globalization a reader. tell apart Kesselman. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007.59-69. Print. Kesselman, Mark. Globalization as Contested Terrain. The politic s of globalization a reader. Mark Kesselman. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007. 1-13. Print. Sen, Amartya. How to Judge Globalism. The politics of globalization a reader. Mark Kesselman. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007. 28-36. Print. Stiglitz, Joseph E. Globalisms Discontents. The politics of globalization a reader. Mark Kesselman. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007. 86-96. Print. ur-Rehman, Zia, Declan Walsh, and Salman Masood. Pakistan Factory Fires cut down More Than 300. The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. Webster, Inc. Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary. 11th ed. Springfield, Mass. Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003. Print. Wolf, Martin. Why Globalization Works. The politics of globalization a reader. Mark Kesselman. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007. 74-85. Print.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Bharti Airtel in Africa Essay

The jury is still out on Africa. The cost of operations is still spicyer(prenominal) than expected, elasticity of demand could fail to kick in, and competition could intensify. But the business metrics are showing early signs of a turnaround. My gut feel is that we gutter make this work. Sunil Mittal, Chairman, Bharti AirtelIn February 2012, Sunil Mittal walked past the illuminated hoardings for Airtels mobile services plastered across the walls of Nairobi airport, and wondered if Bharti would be able to overtake MTN in Africa by replicating the high-volume, low-cost telecom business model that it had pi onenessered for the Indian masses.Founded in India in 1995, Bharti Airtel (Bharti) had rewritten the rules of the globose telecommunication industry. The cellular doer had defied conventional Western telecom knowledge that emphasized high tariffs for wealthy customers, and had instead chosen to concentrate on Indias mass grocery store place, including the rural poor. In orde r to focus on getting customers, the company had made the bold decision to outsource mammoth portions of its operations. By February 2012, Bharti had been Indias market leader for some time, with 183 million customers, and had pioneered a highvolume, low-cost telecom model with tariffs of less than one cent per minute, which had previously been considered unviable.By 2009, growth in India had begun to taper off, and Mittal began to look for clean opportunities. Africa seemed to present just the right option. Its gigantic population of over a billion people with low per capita incomes mirrored Indias demographics. Africas real mobile penetration was 30% and growing rapidly, and high mobile tariffs in Africa, combined with low monthlyminutes of use per customer, indicated that there was room to grow the market not just by add mobile penetration, but also by intensifying usage.1 In June 2010, Bharti acquired the 15 African operations of Bahrain-based Zain Telecom, for $10.7 billio n the largest M&A deal in the global telecom industry for that year, and the largest ever cross-border deal in an emerging market.When they reached Africa, Bhartis leaders discovered that employee morale at Zain was low, work cultures between the two continents differed vastly, and market share revenues and EBITDA were falling every month. Infrastructure was poor, hardware and software equipment was obsolete, access to equipment supplies was limited, skilled technicians were in short supply, and the cost of doing business was turning out to be much higher than Mittal and his team had anticipated. Bhartis initial experiments with leveling tariffs and removing Zains 20% to 30% premiums in its ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Krishna Palepu and Research Associate Tanya Bijlani from the India Research amount of money prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discus sion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of stiff or ineffective management.Copyright 2012 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School.This document is authorized for use only in International Business by Prof. R. Sugant at SDM Institute for Management and Development (SDMIMD) from September 2014 to November 2014.Francophone and Anglophone regions had not increased demand to the extent that they had expected and it was unclear whether dour prices would drive mobile usage in the hinterland of the continent.Despite the challenges, Bharti initiated multiple transformations in Africa, including outsour cing active and passive managed services (networks) for all of its 16 countries outsourcing its IT and call nubble support to BPO1 firms for the first time in Africa revamping its distribution network integrating its brand, and implementing a host of human resource-related initiatives to inculcate the companys DNA in its new operations. Bhartis executives felt that these measures had comprehensively changed the structure of the telecom industry in Africa. Africa was turning out to be far more complex than Mittal and his team had imagined.By February 2012, it had been over a year and a half since the acquisition, and Bharti was leading in revenue market share in 9 of 16 countries, including Zambia as well as some smaller markets like Malawi and Gabon. In Africas other larger markets, such as Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda, MTN, its chief competitor, continued to lead. (Exhibit 1 Bhartis Position in Africa). In Nigeria, Africas largest market, MTN was improving the quality of its network, emphasizing advanced data offerings, rolling out mobile payments solutions, conceptualizing applications such as mobile healthcare, and holding onto its undisputed position as the market leader.If Bharti continued with its India plan in Africa, investing in rural networks and slashing tariffs, and demand failed to hoof up, the company risked losing money. With a $12.9 billion unpaid loan (largely on account of an approximately $9-billion unpaid loan from the Zain acquisition) still lingering on Bhartis counterpoise sheet, Mittal wondered if that was something they could afford. The other option was to wait and watch, leave prices at market levels, and focus on urban and suburban areas, until it was clear that the money had trickled into the villages. As Mittal got into his car and flock towards Bhartis Nairobi headquarters, he wondered what their strategy in Africa should be.Bharti in IndiaThe Early DaysMittal started manufacturing bicycle parts at the age of 18, with approximat ely $200 borrowed from his father, a Member of Parliament from the north Indian state of Punjab. He subsequently imported portable generators, and assembled push-button telephones in India. In 1992, soon after the Indian telecommunications market liberalized, Mittal secured a partnership with three other companies, including Compagnie Generale des Eaux, the precursor to Vivendi of France, to make a joint bid for the first round of cellular licensing in India. Mittal took a three-month sabbatical to prepare for the bid, and spent $220,000 on the presentation, which included aerial photography and satellite imagery2.The Government of India gave the consortium a license to build a cellular phone network in Indias capital letter, saucy Delhi, and Mittals newly-incorporated Bharti Cellular became the first company to launch mobile telephony services in New Delhi, in 1995, under the brand name of Airtel. The company sold equity interest to British Telecom and Warburg Pincus in order to raise the funds it required to acquire licenses to operate in new geographies, and by 2003, Bharti had acquired mobile licenses for 15 out of Indias 23 circles. By 2004, Bharti was a pan-India operator with running operations in all circles.Like many Indian enterprises, Bharti contained elements of a family business.Bharti was Mittals middle name. Mittal was Chairman and Group Managing Director of the company, while his brother, Rajan Mittal, was Joint Managing Director, and a tierce brother, Rakesh Mittal, was on the board of directors. Akhil Gupta, a chartered accountant and a friend of the family was Chief Financial Officer, and later became Deputy Group CEO and Managing Director of Bharti Enterprises.The indorsement Factory ModelIn the early days, telecom was an industry where the complexity was daunting, Gupta said. We were committed to making it a very simple industry. So we equated ourselves with manufacturing. The only variation was that another factory could be manufact uring nuts and bolts, while we manufactured minutes.Bharti learnt the business of telecom from their early European partners, British Telecom and Telecom Italia. Conventional soundness then was that mobile telephony was meant for upper class customers who could pay premium prices. Operators preferred to keep tariffs high, thereby protecting Average Revenue per User (ARPU), considered one of the most important metrics in the business. High tariffs, they felt, discouraged users from talking too much, which in turn, minimized the need for network cornerstone, thereby reducing capital expenditure, and improving return on investment.But Mittal and his team felt that at an ARPU of Rs. 1000 (approximately $222) then considered a minimum requirement for a telecom operator to be profitable their customer base would be restricted to a small segment of wealthy customers in major cities and a few large towns, and decided to turn the model on its head.Gupta explainedThe goal of a manufacturi ng organization is to maximize the number of units produced while maintaining margin per unit. Similarly, we decided that we would expand production of our lead-in output, minutes, keeping margins per minute more or less constant. As we scaled up, we would pass any cost savings we achieved onto the customer by lowering tariffs, which would increase demand further, and would allow us to go deeper into the market andreach lower-income customers. This would result in a rapid increase in minutes and consequently, overall margin.Mittal and Gupta believed that how they utilized existing capacity, and how much revenue they collectively earned from that capacity, mattered most. The focus, therefore, was on growing total revenues, reducing operating expenses as a percent of revenues (opex productivity), and increasing revenues as a percent of cumulative capital expenditures (capex productivity). (Exhibit 2 Bhartis Key Performance Metrics)Outsourcing OperationsA telecom company, it was orig inally thought, would have to be an infrastructure company, a network company, an IT company, and a customer service company rolled into one. But in early 2004, given that Bharti was growing rapidly, expanding into new territories, and entering new businesses like fixed line services and long distance operations, Mittal and his team were forced to question what constituted their core activity. Again, we broke away from traditional telecom wisdom, Gupta said. We had no choice at our back end, we were collapsing.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Chemical Vision

Final Report Sponsored By ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT BOARD Ministry of Industries & Production governing of Pakistan SEDC Building (STP) 5-A, Constitution Avenue Islamabad Tele (051) 9205595, 9223734 Fax (051) 9206161 Prep atomic number 18d By engineering Management Inter bailiwick (Pvt) Ltd (TECHMA) 31/11-A, Abu Bakr Block New Garden Town, Lahore Tele (042) 5881460 Fax-Cum-Tel (042) 5881718 netmail emailprotected net. pk 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Description rogue Nos. Acknowledgement Team of Experts administrator Summary. CHAPTER 1 cooking stove Of The lands chemic diligence 1. 1 Scope of the chemic patience. . 2 Category wise breakdown of the chemic substance perseverance. 1. 3 Research and maturation in the chemical industry. 1. 4 Classification of the chemical industry maturation of Pakistan Vision 2030. CHAPTER 2 Potential for the phylogenesis of second-string c crude chemical industries base on feedstocks derived from primary industries. 2. 1 Feedstocks derived from primary industries for the potential maturement of secondary chemical industries. Crude oil color base petroleum and petrochemical refineries. Olefin petrochemical complex. Aromatic petrochemical complex. 2. 2 infixed burn out based chemicals. 2. 3 Alternative feedstocks for the mathematical product of commodity chemicals. 2. 4. Feedstocks derived from metallurgical plants and polymers, materials technology and metallurgical processes. 2. 5 Other mineral based confinements consisting of panelling and alkali industries, cement and glass plants based on limestone, gypsum, rock salt, sulphur and silicon oxide. 2. 6 Agro based feed stocks. 2. 7 Sources of primitive materials and process technologies for chemical industry training in Pakistan. 2. 8 Categorization of secondary chemical industries in Pakistan. CHAPTER 3The present perspective of the chemical industry in Pakistan. 3. 1 General 3. 2 The expression of Pakistans imports and exports. 3. 3 The role of govern ment in industrial development. 3. 4 Limitations of Pakistans industrial policies for chemical industry development. i- cardinal 1 1 1 4 5 1 1 1 3 5 7 10 13 17 17 20 21 1 1 3 8 12 Continued. Page 1 of 2 CHAPTER 4 4. 1 Modernization of the national innovation system for chemical industry development in Pakistan. Limitations of Pakistans N. I. S. The scope of Engineering victimization Board with additive responsibility for technology development and proposed tructure of Technology Development Board. 4. 2 The role of the national committee in research and technology development. 4. 2. 1 The current location of R&D in Pakistan. 4. 2. 2 internal committee for research and technology development. 4. 3 National committee for the development of softw ar and hardw argon for the commercialization of technologies. 4. 4 National committee for the development of technology insurance policy and investment planning. 4. 5 Human re informant development. 4. 6 Integrated plan for the developme nt of a national innovation system. 4. 7 Industrial master plan. CHAPTER 5Profiles of Present Secondary chemical substance Industries of Pakistan. ( plane section 1) Caustic soda (Section 2) Soda ash & sodium bicarbonate Section -3) Petrochemicals 1 2 4&5 5 6 7 10 13 15 16 20 1-11 12-19 20-37 CHAPTER 6 Proposal For The coming(prenominal) Development Of Secondary Industries In Pakistan 1-5 CHAPTER 7 Industrial Trade Policies 7. 1 Imports, tariff and custom duties. 7. 2 Tariff escalation, description and peaks. 7. 3 Other imports duties/taxes. 7. 4 Competitiveness of exports from Pakistan. CHAPTER 8 Conclusions and Recommendations. Attachments Annexure A References 1 2 3 4 1-5 -3 Page 2 of 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to Mr Asad Ilahi, Chief executive director Officer of the Engineering Development Board, and his dedicated staff, Mr. M. Farooq Khan, General Manager (Policy) and Mr Yasir Qurban, Project Engineer. They gave their full support in the conception of the project for chemic industriousness Development Vision 2030 and provided invaluable information and data, which were essential for the successful development of the project. My thanks to my colleagues and associated consultants Mr Muhammad Sadiq Chaudhry, Dr M. Khalid Farooq and Mr Pervaiz A. Khan.They were a source of inspiration and played an active role in discussions for the development of the strategy. Thank you to my daughter, Leila Butt, for editing this report. Dr Waheed M. Butt EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The international chemical industry forms the fabric of the modern world. It converts basic stark materials into more than 70,000 different products, non only for industry, provided also for all the consumer goods that people rely on in their daily life. The modern chemical industry is divided into four full(a) categories, comprising basic chemicals, life sciences, specialty chemicals and consumer products.Its outstanding success is strikingly due to unceasing scientific and technologic al breakthroughs and advances, which decl argon led to the development of new products and processes. Chemical industry development in Pakistan has been classified into (i) the primary field chemical industry and (ii) the secondary sector chemical industry. Primary sector industries be salient-scale, big(p) intensive industries comprising refineries, petrochemicals, rude(a) muck up, metallurgical and mineral based projects. They also provide feedstocks for the secondary chemical industry.Secondary industries are based on feedstocks either derived from primary sector industries, or otherwise alternative sources of raw materials. These are less jacket intensive and are based on high, medium or less sophisticated technologies. The secondary sector industries form the basis for the proposed Chemical Industry Development Vision 2030. Primary sector industries which provide feedstocks for the development of secondary sector chemical industries, as vigorous as other alternative sources of feedstocks consist of (i) Petroleum and petrochemical refineries.These provide petrochemical intermediate chemicals, which form the building blocks for the performance of a precise plumping number of secondary chemicals, such as polymers, fibers, pharmaceuticals, drugs, dyes and colours, insecticides, pesticides, resins, paints, pigments, specialty chemicals, and a very large number of consumer and construction materials and products. (ii) Natural be adrift based chemicals, which consist of wood spirit and ammonia. These can also be expenditure for the payoff of a large number of secondary chemicals. (iii) metallurgical metals and non-metals based secondary chemicals and products.Executive Summary Page i of vii (iv) Alternative renewable feedstocks for the mathematical product of secondary chemicals consist of bio-mass, agricultural uncivilizeds, oils and fats, molasses and power alcohol. (v) Unconventional natural fuck up. (vi) Mineral based secondary chemica l industries derived from coal, limestone, gypsum, rocksalt, silica sand and sulphur. (vii) Vegetable and herb tea plants dropd in the production of secondary chemicals, such as dyes, medicines, drugs, cosmetics and associated products. The development of secondary chemical industries are divided amongst projects ased on sophisticated technologies, and those based on medium and less sophisticated technologies. Development of the chemical industry in Pakistan is lagging behind those of other acclivitous markets. The various factors which have hampered the development of this industry in Pakistan are (i) An underdeveloped industrial infrastructure. (ii) Reliance on foreign engineering and construction companies for the commercialization of topically developed or imported technologies. (iii) Imports of second-hand highly cogency intensive plants based on antiquated technologies. iv) Reliance on the development of resource based, unkept technology, labor intensive products for ex port. The objective of Chemical Industry Development Vision 2030 is for (i) Pakistan to create its own capability and achieve self-reliance in project design, engineering and the construction management beseechd for the commercialization of technologies. (ii) To develop capability in the production of medium and high technology based chemicals for export, alongside to the present industrial structure based on low technology resource based products. iii) To provide suitable incentives to entrepreneurs for the development of an exportoriented chemical industry. Executive Summary Page ii of vii The development of the chemical industry in Pakistan started in the 1950s and is based on five year plans, with the first plan covering the 1955-60 period. Economic process was based on a policy of import substitution, resulting in varying rates of increase of between 3. 1-6. 8% over 1950-70. However, this masks a highly shifting performance the rate of gain slowed in the early 1970s to an annual average of 4. %, but the saving was revitalized in the late 1970s and 1980s, forwards weakening again. However, in candidate of the inconsistencies in the development of trade policies geared towards export-led growth, Pakistan has failed to boost exports of its manufacture goods. By comparison, economic growth in conspiracyeast Asiatic countries from the 1960s onwards, and in India, China and other late comers from the 1980s, was driven by their exportoriented industrialization policies. All these countries introduced market reforms and provided various incentives and subsidies in line of battle to enhance their exports of manufactured goods.In addition, these countries also developed their own technology and engineering infrastructure by virtue of which they achieved self-sufficiency in the utilization and commercialization of their technologies. As a result, they have achieved strong annual average growth rates of between 8-11% over the past three decades. Tradition ally, exports from Pakistan have been dominated by goods reachd with low technology, resource based feed stocks, such as textiles, cotton, readymade garments and leather. These comprise about 60% of total exports.The composition and share in exports of medium and high technology based products, comprising chemicals, petrochemicals and other manufactured products is very small and has fluctuated between 8-10% of total exports from Pakistan. Conversely, Pakistan has a very high dependence of imports of high value-added goods, which are more expensive. Chemicals, drugs, medicines and dyes, as substantially as capital plant, equipment and machinery, together account for about 40% of total imports with an estimated value of US$16. 3 billion for the year 2007/08.As a result, the trade balance has been continually increasing and stood at US$20. 9 billion in 2007/08. Present trends in Pakistans exports of lower technology goods indicate that it is facing increasing tilt from India, China and Bangladesh. In addition, global demand for Executive Summary Page iii of vii these products is declining, and the need for higher technology products is rapidly growing. This situation calls for a concerted effort towards the development of a chemical industry based on medium and highly sophisticated technologies.Pakistan has only developed its basic industries, consisting of refineries, fertilizers, cement, sugar, polyester fibers and whatever other petrochemical based polymer industries, to fulfill local demand. These industries have been predominantly developed by foreign engineering corporations, which were awarded contracts on turnkey basis. However, Pakistan has failed to assimilate these imported technologies, or use them either for the replication of these plants or in the development of associated chemical projects.This dependence on the production and exports of low-valued added goods has held back Pakistans economic performance and receipts-earning potential. By co mparison, South and southeasterly Asian countries put special emphasis on the development of high technology goods for export. They achieved this through trade liberalization, but their governments also introduced industrial policies that focuse on the maintenance of macroeconomic stability, the provision of industrial and technology infrastructure, improvements to market institutions and high levels of state-supported investment.These countries established public organizations which supported production activities, but they also relied on mystical firms for the success of their industrial policies. For example, China, which retains its socialist form of governance, introduced market reforms and advocated the so-called Open Door Policy. It also created two large public sector corporations China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), for the production and exploration of oil and gas and China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC) for the development of its petrochemical industry.Chi na also created Petro-China as a Holding Comp some(prenominal), which offered its shares on international markets. The value of this company was estimated at US$100 billion in 1999, but has since risen to US$1. 1 jillion in 2008. The salient features of Chinas public private partnerships (PPPs) is that the public sector is the major shareholder in the development of its capital intensive industries, whereas the private sector is the majority equity partner in the development of secondary projects. Executive Summary Page iv of viiRapid industrialization in Japan and South Korea was driven by multinational conglomeratesKeiretsus and Chaebolswhich created vertical and horizontal diversification of their businesses, with the active support of their respective governments. This pattern, in many cases has been followed by newly industrialized countries (NICs). Pakistans industrial infrastructure is limited and it relies primarily on foreign design and engineering companies for the commer cialization of local and imported technologies.Therefore, on that point is immediate need for enhancing and modernizing its national innovation system (NIS). This is the framework by which a country brings about technological change, and consists of research and development (R&D) institutions, the infrastructure for commercialization of technologies, the structure of educational and technical foul institutions, regulatory agencies, information networks, financial institutions and marketing. Process science and engineering technology (PS&ET) is an important component of a NIS and is the bringation for the development of the chemical industry.It integrates various elements of the processes of commercialization, from R&D to process design, project engineering, construction, operations and marketing management. Taken together, these provide the basis for manufacturing excellence and sustainable competitive advantage. In order to meet the goals of Chemical Industry Development Vision 2030, it is essential for Pakistan to enhance its PS&ET capability. We propose that the scope of the Engineering Development Board should be enhanced and given the additive responsibility to modernize and strengthen the NIS as the basis for technology development.In order to achieve this objective, three committees should be established under the direction of a Technology Development Board (which impart be an enhanced Engineering Development Board) (i) A National deputation for research and technology development, (ii) A National Committee for the development of software and hardware for the commercialization of technologies. Executive Summary Page v of vii (iii) A National Committee for the development of technology policy and investment planning.The role of the National Committee for research and technology development will be to foster linkages between universities, R&D institutions and the chemical industry. different tasks to be undertaken by this committee will let in the formation of sub-committees for different sectors of the chemical industry identification of problems of each sector selection of R&D teams from universities, industry and R&D institutes for multidisciplinary research continual appraisal and economic evaluation of laboratory and pilot scale work and selection and adoption of technologies for commercialization.The processes of commercialization of local or imported technologies depends on the action of science, engineering, design, instrumentation and control, safety and env urge onment, and many other aspects of capital plant manufacturing, construction, operations and marketing management. In order to develop local capability in various areas of project management, we propose the formation of a National Committee for the development of software and hardware as PPP projects.The functions of this Committee will be to support the development of existing or new engineering companies for various tasks. These include the identification of new projects the conceptualisation of investment studies on international criteria the formation of financial packages the development of software and hardware and its application in design and engineering the development of engineering specifications for capital plant manufacturing construction management and many other functions such as revamping and modernization of old plants, and facilities for reverse engineering.The successful utilization of various components of technology will depend on the ability of the government to foster PPPs with the involvement of industrial and venture capital institutions and a vibrant entrepreneurial class. We suggest that a National Committee for the development of technology policy and investment Planning should be established for (i) The provision of suitable incentives to potential investors, in order to accelerate the processes of chemical industry development and the revision of industrial policies on continual basis.Executive Summary Pa ge vi of vii (ii) The development of investment policies and infrastructure for capital formation. In order to facilitate the formation of investment, we recommend that a Holding Company should be established with the participation of the financial sector, international donors, friends of Pakistan, overseas Pakistanis and other investors, who would be invited to subscribe as share holders in this company. Profiles of various sectors of existing chemical industries in Pakistan have been fain.These consist of Worlds present and projected production, World trade, local production in Pakistan, local market size, local demand, imports, future prospects for each sector of industry, SWOT analysis with special carry onences to weaknesses, threats and opportunities as well as present tariff structure on Pakistan. Proposals for the future developments of Secondary Industries in Pakistan have been prepared and suggestions for the development of secondary chemical projects based on topically available as well as imported materials have been made.The proposed industries have been divided into various sectors consisting of minerals, metallurgical, agro-based alternate sources of energy, oils and fats and petrochemicals based projects. A number of potential projects in each sector have been proposed and it is suggested that EDB initiate the development of feasibility studies on each of these projects for their future implementation. An integrated plan for development of NIS has been proposed and various other equirements consisting of the application of computational technologies, human resource requirements, and the development of coherent industrial policy are also considered necessary. An Industrial Master Plan must be prepared for the implementation of various elements of the NIS, which should identify Pakistans capabilities and limitations in various priority sub-sectors of the chemical industry. It should develop policy measures and provide fiscal incentives in order to put forward investment in various sectors of chemical industry.The development of a NIS on international standards will provide tens of thou sandpaper of job to Pakistans highly qualified manpower. Executive Summary Page vii of vii CHAPTER 1 1. 1. 1 SCOPE OF THE WORLDS CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Scope of the Chemical Industry The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is rally to the modern world economy, as it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products. The chemical industry is more diverse than near any other industry in the world. Its products are omnipresent.Chemicals are the building blocks for products that meet our near fundamental needs for food, shelter and health, as well as products vital to the high technology world of computing, telecommunications and biotechnology. They are utilize to pretend a wide contour of consumer goods, and are also inputs in agriculture, manufacturing, construction and go industrie s. In particular, chemicals are a keystone of world manufacturing, as they are an integral component of all manufacturing sub-sectors, including pharmaceuticals, automobiles, textiles, furniture, paint, paper, electronics, construction and appliances.It is difficult to fully enumerate the uses of chemical products and processes, but the following nomenclature gives some indication of the level of diversity Polymers and p sustainics curiously polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonatecomprise about 80% of the chemical industrys output worldwide. The chemical industry itself consumes 26% of its own output. Major industrial products include rubber and plastics, textiles, apparel, polymers, pulp and paper, and primary metals.Chemicals are nearly a US$3 trillion global enterprise, with chemical companies in the EU, US and Japan being the worlds largest producers. 1. 2 Category Breakdown of the Chemical Industry The marketing of the chemical business can be divided into a few broad categories, including basic chemicals (about 35-37% of US dollar output), life sciences (30%), specialty chemicals (20-25%) and consumer products (about 10%). ___________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1Page 1 of 1 BASIC CHEMICALS or commodity chemicals are a broad chemical category, which include polymers, bulk petrochemicals and intermediates, other derivatives and basic industrials, inorganic chemicals and fertilizers. Polymersthe largest revenue segment, at about 33% of the basic chemicals US dollar valueinclude all categories of plastics and man-made fibers. The major markets for plastics are packaging, followed by home construction, containers, appliances, pipe, transportation, toys and games.The largest pile polymer product, polyethylene (PE), is used mainly in packaging films and other products, such as milk bottles, containers and pipes. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a nonher la rge volume product, is principally used to make pipes for construction markets, as well as siding and, to a much smaller extent, transport and packaging materials. polypropene (PP), which is similar in volume to PVC, is used in markets ranging from packaging, appliances and containers, to clothing and carpeting.Polystyrene (PS), another large-volume plastic, is used principally for appliances and packaging, as well as toys and recreation. The leading man-made fibers include polyester, nylon, polypropylene and acrylics, with applications including apparel, home furnishings, and other industrial and consumer use. The principal raw materials for polymers are bulk petrochemicals. Chemicals in the bulk petrochemicals and intermediates category are primarily made from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas and naphtha. Their sales volume is close to 30% of total basic chemicals.Typical large-volume products include ethylene, propylene, benzene, toluene, xylenes, methanol, vinyl chlor ide monomer (VCM), styrene, butadiene and ethylene oxide. These chemicals are the starting materials for most polymers and other organic chemicals, as well as much of the specialty chemicals category. Other derivatives and basic industrials include synthetic rubber, surfactants, dyes and pigments, resins, carbon black, explosives and rubber products. They carry about 20% to basic chemicals outside(a) sales. ___________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1Page 2 of 2 Inorganic chemicals (about 12% of revenue output) are the oldest of the chemical categories. Products include salt, chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash, acids (such as nitric, phosphoric and sulfuric), titanium dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Fertilizers are the smallest category (about 6%) and include phosphates, ammonia, urea and potash chemicals. LIFE SCIENCES (about 30% of the dollar output of the chemical business), include differentiated chemical and biological substances, pharma ceuticals, diagnostics, zoology health products, vitamins and crop protection chemicals.While much smaller in volume than other chemical sectors, their products tend to have very high pricesover US$10 per poundwith research and development (R&D) spending at 15-25% of sales. Life science products are usually produced to very high specifications and are closely scrutinized by government agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Crop protection chemicals, about 10% of this category, include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS are a category of sexual intercoursely high value-added, rapidly growing, chemicals with diverse end-product markets.They are broadly speaking characterized by their innovative aspectsproducts are sold for what they can do rather than for what chemicals they contain. Products include electronic chemicals, industrial gases, adhesives and sealants, as well as coatings, industrial and institutional cleaning chemicals, and catalysts. Coatings comprise about 15% of specialty chemicals sales, with other products ranging from 10-13%. Specialty Chemicals are sometimes referred to as fine chemicals. CONSUMER PRODUCTS include direct product sales of chemicals such as soaps, detergents, and cosmetics.The chemical industry has shown rapid growth for more than 50 old age. The fastest growing areas have been in the manufacture of synthetic organic polymers used as plastics, fibres and elastomers. Historically and currently the chemical industry has been concentrated in three areas of the world Western Europe, North America and Japan (the so-called Triad). The EU remains the largest producer, followed by the US and Japan. ___________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1Page 3 of 3 The traditional federal agency of chemical production by the Triad is now being challenged by changes in feedstock availability and price, labour and energy costs, differential rates of economic growth and environmental pressures. Instrumental in the changing structure of the global chemical industry has been recent rapid economic growth in China, India, Korea, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Nigeria, Trinidad, Thailand, Brazil, Venezuela, and Indonesia. 1. 3 Research and Development in the Chemical IndustryThe outstanding success of the global chemical industry is largely due to scientific and technological breakthroughs and advances, facilitating the development of new products and processes. The US chemical industry now spends about US$17. 6 billion annually on R&D. In fact, according to field of view by the Institute for the Future (IFTF), the chemical industry is one of the eight most research-intensive industries. The scientific and technical research of these industries makes our lives safer, longer, easier and more productive.When one reviews the contributions of the chemical industry to our civilization, it becomes clear that rather than any single individual in vention or technological breakthrough, it has been the industrys overall commitment to R&D that has been its most significant legacy. Investment in R&D is the single greatest driver of productivity increases, accounting for half or more of all increases in output per person. R&D is the source of new products that improve our quality of life, and new processes that enable firms to reduce costs and increase competitiveness.As we look to the future, it is apparent that go along investment in technology is necessary for industry to meet the needs and expectations of future generations. Reaching the goals of Chemical Industry Development Vision 2030 will require Pakistan to build its technology infrastructure, consisting of investment in technology development, computer aided design, engineering, plant and equipment manufacturing, construction and marketing management. These areas of development have been grossly neglected in the past and are the major reasons for the present plight of the chemical industry in the country. __________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1 Page 4 of 4 The industrial sector drives the global economy, collectively transacting almost US$3 trillion per annum. An industry is a collection of companies that perform similar functions. Industry can be used to refer to all company groups, or as being a set of entities that utilize productive forces to convert a simple input into a graceful final product. The size of various industries varies by country, level of development and external demand. . 4 Classification of the Chemical Industry Development of Pakistan Vision 2030 For the purpose of the Chemical Industry Development Vision 2030, this industry is divided into Primary sector industries and Secondary sector industries. Primary Sector Industries The Primary sector industry by and large involves the conversion of natural resources into primary products. These are large, highly sophisticated, tec hnology-based, capital intensive projects consisting of (i)Petroleum refining and petrochemical industries for the production of petrochemical intermediates, olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylenes) and BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), all of which form the basis for the development of monomers, polymers and plastic industries. (ii) Natural gas based projects for the production of ammonia, methanol, fertilizers and associated products. (iii) Mineral based industries consisting of cement, limestone, gypsum, sand and salt. (iv) Smelting and refining of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. They also produce raw materials for Secondary industries. v) Agriculture and Farming Industries These bring about naturally occurring, renewable sources of raw materials, such as cotton, oils and fats, sugar, agricultural wastes (bio-mass) and raw materials for a large number of downstream industries. ___________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1 Page 5 of 5 Second ary Sector Industries The principal objective of Secondary sector industries is to provide the connective link between products and materials produced by Primary industries, which are of practical use to the national economy.This implies that the Secondary industries rely on the Primary industries for feedstocks and raw materials for use in manufacturing, impact, blending, fabricating plants for petrochemical intermediates, polymers, plastics, steel, non-ferrous metals, minerals, agricultural and miscellaneous products. These industries use medium- to high-sophisticated technology, and range from light to medium categories. THE supplemental SECTOR INDUSTRIES WILL FORM THE BASIS FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN VISION 2030. __________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1 Page 6 of 6 CHAPTER 2 2. say-so FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF alternate CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES BASED ON FEEDSTOCKS DERIVED FROM PRIMARY INDUSTRIES 2. 1 Feedstocks Derived from Primary Industries for the Potential Development of Secondary Chemical Industries Primary chemical industries, which are manufactured through the utilization of various feedstocks, consist of large-scale, highly capital intensive plants, based on sophisticated technologies.These projects also provide raw materials for the development of secondary chemical industries and consist of Crude oil based refineries and petrochemical complexes. Natural gas based chemicals and fertilizer projects. Alternative renewable feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals Metallurgical plants for the production of iron, steel, and non-ferrous metals. Other mineral projects consisting of acid and alkali industries, and cement and glass plants based on limestone, gypsum, rock salt, sulphur and silica. Projects based on agro feedstocks.Crude Oil establish Petroleum and Petrochemical Refineries Petroleum refineries are designed to produce a limited number of products, which are primari ly used as a source of energy in road, rail and air transport power plants steam generation and heating media in the chemical industry. They do not produce high value-added chemicals unless they are integrated with petrochemical plantsgenerally designated as Petrochemical Refinerieswhich are highly energy efficient and produce diversified feedstocks and raw materials for a large number of secondary chemicals.A petrochemical is any chemical compound obtained from petroleum or natural gas, or derived from petroleum or natural gas hydrocarbons and utilized in the production of a large diversity of secondary chemicals and products. The definition has been broadened to include the whole range of aliphatic, aromatic and organic ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 1 of 23 chemicals, as well as carbon black and such inorganic materials as sulphur and ammonia. In many instances, a specific chemical included among the etroc hemicals may also be obtained from other sources, such as coal, coke or bio-mass. Petrochemical based secondary chemicals include such items as plastics, soaps and detergents, solvents, drugs, fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, synthetic fibers and rubbers, paints, epoxy resins, and flooring and insulating materials. Petrochemicals are found in products as diverse as aspirin, boats, automobiles, aircraft, polyester and acrylic fibers, recording discs and tapes. Natural gas and crude oil are referred to collectively as petroleum. Crude oil consists of the heavier constituents that naturally occur in liquid form.Natural gas refers to the lighter constituents of petroleum that naturally occur in gaseous form, either on its own as free gas, or in association with crude oil. The production of petrochemical based intermediate chemicals form the feedstocks for secondary industries as part of a two phase process. In the first stage, crude oil is distilled and fractionated to produce a nu mber of products consisting of gasoline, naphthas, and light and heavy gas oils, which are used as a source of energy for road and air transport, and power generation.Simultaneously the off gases, light and heavy naphthas, and gas oils are predominantly used as the starting materials for petrochemical projects. This is illustrated in build 2. 1. In the second stage the off gases and naphthas are further processed into two separate operations to produce Petrochemical intermediate chemicals or monomers as follows ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 2 of 23 Petrochemical Feedstocks Crude Oil To Petroleum Refinery Atmospheric Distillation Methane &Off Gases Gasoline And Motor Spirit infirm and Heavy Naphtha Light and Heavy Gas Oil Residue Petrochemical Feedstock Off Gases/Naphtha/Gas Oil Catalyst Cracking Aromatics travel Cracking Olefins image 2. 1 Olefin Petrochemical compo site plant Refinery off gases, naphtha s or gas oils are reformed at high temperatures in the presence of steam to produce monomers (ethylene, propylene and butylenes). These are gases at banausic temperatures and pressures and can only be transported at high pressures and low temperatures as liquids under refrigerated condition.These are preferably processed further at site to produce secondary petrochemical products or polymerized into polymers, such as polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene, ethylene glycol and many other secondary chemicals as illustrated in Fig 2. 2 and 2. 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 3 of 23 STEAM CRACKING OF STEAM NAPHTHA / GAS OIL NAPHTHA / ASSOCIATED GAS / GAS OIL STEAM ethene REACTOR Steam to Feed ratio 0. 25 to 0. 9 Temperatures 820 to 840oC Propylene Butylenes Fig 2. 2 OLEFINS AND PETROCHEMICAL INTERMEDIATES BASED supplementaryCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES STAGE I THERMAL CRACKING OF NAPHTHA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PRI MARY CHEMICALS (HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED, crown INTENSIVE PROCESS) ETHYLENE PROPYLENE BUTYLENES POLYETHYLENES LDPE,HDPE POLYPROPYLENE POLY VINYL CHLORIDE POLYSTYRENE SBR ETHYLENE GLYCOL POLY VINYL ACETATE STAGE II POLYMERIZATION OF PRIMARY CHEMICALS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY CHEMICALS AND POLYMERS. (MEDIUM TECHNOLOGY BASED PROCESSES). PLASTICS FILMS CONTAINERS PIPES,CABLES, BAGS SYNTHETIC RUBBER & LEATHER PRODUCTS TYRES TOYS ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT RADIO, TV, AIR CONDITIONERS, REFRIGERATORS FURNITURE, TABLEWARE FORWARD CREATION BACKWARD INTEGRATIONASSOCIATED GASES OR NAPHTHA STAGE III FABRICATION OF SECONDARY CHEMICALS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS. (LOW/MEDIUM TECHNOLOGY BASED PRODUCTS) Fig 2. 3 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 4 of 23 Other Olefins Based SecondaryChemicals Naphtha Steam Cracker (Olefins) Ethylene & Derivatives Ethylene EDC Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Oxide HDPE LDPE LLDPE EPDM Ethanol A lpha Olefins Vinyl Acetate Ethyl Chloride / Ethyl Benzene Propylene & Derivates Propylene Acrylonitrile Cumene Polypropylene Acrylic Acid Butanol 2-Ethyl Hexanol Iso-Propanol NoneneDodecene Propylene Oxide Acetone Acrylic Fiber Butadiene & Derivatives Butadiene ABS Adiponitrile /HMDA Nitrile Rubber Poly-Butadiene Poly chloroprene SB Latex SB Rubber Fig- 2. 3(a) Aromatic Petrochemical mingled Naphtha and gas oil is also catalytically reformed at high temperatures in the presence of catalysts to yield aromatic intermediate chemicals, such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (Fig 2. 4). These are liquids at ordinary temperatures and pressures and can be easily transported to desired locations where they are used as raw materials in the production of a compartmentalization of secondary chemical products as shown in Fig. . 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 5 of 23 catalytic REFORMING OF NAPHTHA CATALYTIC (AROMATIZATI ON REACTION) NAPHTHA / ASSOCIATED GAS / GAS OIL Benzene CATALYTIC REACTOR STEAM Toluene Xylenes Fig-2. 4 Aromatics Based Secondary Chemicals Naphtha Catalytic Reformer (Aromatics) Toluene & Derivatives Benzene TDI Caprolactam Benzoic Acid TNT Xylenes & Derivates Orthoxylene Paraxylene Metaxylene DMT TPA Bottle rosin Polyester Fiber Fiber Chip Film Resin Phthalic Anhydride PET Benzene & Derivatives Benzene ) Cumene ) Phenol ) Cyclo Hexane )Ethyl Benzene ) Adiplc Acid ) alkyl group Benzene ) Aniline ) Alkyl Phenol ) Chloro Benzene ) Maleic Anhydride ) Nylon Fiber/Resin ) Production of Secondary Chemicals Medium / High Technology Chemicals and Products Production of Primary/Intermediate Chemicals (Highly Sophisticated Capital Intensive) Fig 2. 5 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 6 of 23 2. 2 Natural Gas Based Chemicals Natural gas is a very valuable resource, not only for use as energy, but also for the productio n of chemicals. It has been used commercially as a fuel for hundreds of years.The production, processing and distribution of natural gas has become an important segment of the world economy and is a major factor in the production of chemicals in global markets. The composition of natural gas depends on its source. It predominantly consists of methane, but in many cases contains higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane. Natural gas processing plants are designed to produce certain valuable products over and above those needed to make the gas marketable. Plants are also designed to recover elemental sulphur which is the starting raw material for the production of many secondary chemicals.Natural gas has created multifarious opportunities and challenges as it is now utilized in the production of fertilizers and petrochemicals, in addition to its earlier use as a source of energy. This is illustrated in Fig 2. 6. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________ Chapter 2 Page 7 of 23 Household Gas Fig -2. 6 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 8 of 23 FIG-2. 7 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 9 of 23 2. 3Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Commodity Chemicals The uncertainties about the peaking of available militia of fossil fuels, and rising prices of petroleum and natural gas, have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. Over the last two decades alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed. These feedstocks include coal based gasification and liquefaction processes and renewable resources such as bio-mass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, heavy oil from Tar sands or oil shale.These sources of alternative feedstocks are in the process of develop ment for highest volume production of commodity chemicals in Europe and the US. The technology for their utilization is in the process of development, in order to make these processes more efficient and economically compatible with petroleum based technologies. The status of various available feedstocks and the technological development for their exploitation for the production of secondary chemicals is as follows scorch Substantial world coal reserves make it an attractive alternative to natural gas and petroleum.The technologies for large scale processing of coal are at present available in South Africa and China. However, a major concern about the utilization of these technologies is the divergence in feedstock composition and the presence of impurities which poison the catalysts used in the processing of coal. Coal Gasification Commodity chemicals can be produced through the gasification of coal. Because of the large domestic reserves of coal in Pakistan, this feedstock option needs to be exploited. Coal gasification for application, including the production of chemical feedstocks, is already wide practiced worldwide.These plants generate feedstocks for chemical production, closely followed by the Fischer Tropsch process for the production of organic chemicals. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 10 of 23 The gasification process starts with the production of synthesis gas in a gasifier, followed by the production of a mixture of carbon oxides and hydrogen. Ammonia, methanol, alcohols and aldehydes are produced by Oxo Synthesis. The Fisher Tropsch process is used to produce a variety of secondary chemicals.Different coal types (lignite, bituminous, sub-bituminous) affect the efficiencies and economies of the gasification process, since gasification efficiencies are lower for sub-bituminous coals due to higher moisture and ash content. However, since essentially any organic material can be gasified, existing gasifier designs can be choose to use different types of coal as gasifier feed. Coal Liquefaction Coal can also be liquefied directly, without going through a Syngas step. This process is called the Coal to Liquid or CTL process and is well proven.Liquefaction uses liquid distillation and hydrogenation, where hydrogen is added to coal and water slurry. The slurry increases the Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio to a crude oil level and removes impurities such as sulphur. Coal Liquefaction technology is of particular interest for the utilization of Thar Coal, which has a high moisture content. A full scale production facility is being built in China for the direct liquefaction of coal into transportation fuels to produce 50,000 bbl/day of fuel oil. A similar project could be developed for Thar Coal with the participation of Chinese Process Licensors. Bio-RefineryA major thrust towards the development of renewable feedstocks as a resource for energy and secondary chemi cals is by a process called bio-refining. Bio-refining feedstocks consist of crops residues waste plants or animal material and recycled fibers municipal sewage sludge agricultural and forest residues household waste agro-feed effluents and residues of paper and wood working industry. These plants absorb solar energy from the sun through photosynthesis, and the energy stored within it is recovered by bio-refining processes. ________________________________________________________________________________________Chapter 2 Page 11 of 23 The bio-refining concept generally involves feeding bio-feedstocks into steam or catalyst crackers to produce chemicals. Some technologies are in the process of development for the processing of carbohydrates, oils, lignin and fuels. In addition to their utilization for energy production, some bio based chemicals that have potential for large scale manufacture include carboxylic acids and glycols. Other areas of development include fermentation of suga rs, decomposition of cellulose, high temperature pyrolysis, and bio-refining of wood and waste materials.However widespread use of feedstocks will require sustained research and development(R&D) in a variety of fields such as plant science, microbiology, genomics and catalysis. In view of the impurities, variability of feedstock composition, distributed supply, scalability and pathways for the breakdown of cellulose, the development of process technology will have to be undertaken and / or adapted to local conditions by each country, in order to exploit the utilization of bio-mass feedstocks for economic advantage. Unconventional Natural GasMethane from anaerobic fermentation can be generated from animal manure and sewage treatment, as well as from landfills. The potential for anaerobic fermentation as a source for useable methane, rather than a source of pollution, will require development work leading to improvements in process control, operating efficiencies and rate of digestion , targeting small scale technologies. Renewable energy sources are indigenous and can, therefore, contribute to reducing dependence on energy imports, such as crude oil, resulting in increasing security of supply as well as resources for the production of commodity chemicals.Developments in renewable energy resources can actively contribute to job creation, predominantly in small- and medium-sized industries which are so central to economic performance. The deployment of renewable resources can be a key feature in regional development, with the aim of achieving greater social and economic cohesion, largely for environmental reasons. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 12 of 23 2. 4. Feedstocks Derived from Metallurgical Plants and Polymers, Materials Technology and Metallurgical ProcessesMaterials technology is one of the many areas targeted by the chemical industry. Materials play a slender role in the economic d evelopment and growth of chemical process industries. New materials technology is an essential part of the industrys strategy for achieving its vision. Materials contribute a large amount to industry revenue, and represent a high growth potential for industry. Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical processes consisting of iron, steel, copper, aluminium, magnesium and associated alloys have been used traditionally as feedstocks for the development of secondary chemical industries.Tremendous advances in the twentieth century in the development of new synthetic materials have also fueled the growth of the chemical industry. Replacement of traditional materials with synthetic polymers and composite materials has resulted in products with lower weight, better energy efficiency, higher performance and durability, and increased design and manufacturing flexibility. Metallurgical Industry The traditional iron, steel and non-ferrous metallurgical industries produce valuable primary products w hich are important starting materials for the production of secondary chemical products.They are used by almost every manufacturing industry for the fabrication of capital plants and equipment the manufacture of automobiles, railways, agricultural and construction equipment and components and spare parts for operating plants in the chemical and allied industries. The iron and steel industry is classified into three important primary products according to the order of processing from iron ore to the finished products. The iron ore is calcined and mixed with limestone and coke and introduced into a Blast furnace. The preheated air is fed to the bottom of the furnace. The ore is reduced to iron to produce Pig iron. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 13 of 23 Pig iron is better by different processes to produce iron castings or billets, rolled wrought iron and rolled/forged steel by three different processes as illust rated in Fig 2. 8. Fig-2. 8 The primary products of the iron and steel industry, which consist of iron castings, rolled wrought iron, and rolled and forged steel, are the feedstock for a very large number of downstream secondary industries. ________________________________________________________________________________________Chapter 2 Page 14 of 23 Non-Ferrous Metals Non-ferrous metals are produced through two basic operations. In the first operation, the ores are subjected to metallurgical processes to produce basic metals consisting of large blocs or bars. In the second operation, the metal is smelted and refined. The secondary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals lead to the production of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, silver, gold, tin and zinc. These metals are used in wide variety of secondary chemical manufacturing industries, such as ammunition, beverage cans, coins, automobiles and household appliances.Copper possesses superior electrical conductivity, and is a s trong, durable metal used in a variety of structural applications, as well as for power, lighting and communication transmissions. Domestically, the major markets for copper are construction, electronics, and industrial machinery and equipment. Aluminium, the most widely used nonferrous metal, possesses several positive attributes, such as a light weight, corrosion resistance, and high electrical and thermal conductivity, which makes the metal suitable for a variety of applications.Container and packaging manufacturers use aluminium, while other major enduse products include the transportation sector, the building and construction sector, and the electrical sector. Lead is primarily used for the manufacture of retentivity batteries, which in turn are incorporated into automobile ignition starters, un-interruptible power supplies for computer systems, and standby power supplies for emergency lighting systems and telephones. Other market sectors that get lead include paint and glass manufacturers, and building products manufacturers.Zinc is primarily used to galvanize products found in the automobile, steel and construction industries, but a greater percentage of secondary zinc is used to produce expression and bronze, as well as assorted chemicals. Additional applications include the blending of zinc-based die-cast and brass alloys. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 15 of 23 Composite Materials Over the past few years, advances in the production of composite materials, including mixtures of polymers, fibers, metals and ceramics, have extended the range, performance and applications of these materials.These are made up of individual materials referred to as constituent materials. There are two categories of constituent materials designated as intercellular substance and reinforcement. The matrix surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. Th e reinforcements impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from the individual constituent materials.A wide variety of matrix and strengthening materials allows the designer of the product or structure to choose any optimum combination. Most commercially produced composites use a polymer matrix material oftentimes called a resin solution. There are many different polymers available depending upon the starting ingredients. The most common are cognise as polyesters, vinyl ester, epoxy, phenol, poly amides, amongst others. The reinforcement materials are often fibers and fiber glass, but also commonly ground materials.The average composition in a product contains 60% resin and 40% fiber. Various process technologies consisting of vacuum moulding, pressure moulding, autoclave moulding and resin transfer moulding are employed in order to give the inevitable properties and strength to t he relevant final product. Composite materials have gained popularity in high performance products that need to be lightweight, yet strong enough to take raspy loading conditions. Examples of these include aerospace components, boat and scull hulls, and car bodies.The new Boeing 787 aircraft, including its wings and fuselage, is composed largely of composite materials. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 16 of 23 2. 5 Other Mineral Based Projects Consisting of Acid and Alkali Industries, Cement and Glass Plants Based on Limestone, Gypsum, Rock Salt, Sulphur and Silica The mineral potential of Pakistan, although considered excellent, is not adequately exploited as its contribution to GNP at present stands at only 2. 4%.The main sources of locally available feedstocks for the production of the acid and alkali industry (soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, caustic soda, chlorine), sulphur and other inorganic acids, glass an d cement, consist of rocksalt, sulphur, limestone, gypsum and silica sand. The manufactured products are predominantly marketed for local use, although there are some exports to Afghanistan and the Central Asian states. In view of the long history of development of industries in this sector, the process technologies are well-known locally.However, the design, engineering and procurance of critical plant and equipment are predominantly carried out by foreign engineering companies. 2. 6. Agro Based Feedstocks Cotton and Other Natural Fibers Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy and is the source of livelihood of almost 45% of the total employed labour force in the country. Cotton is the most important non-food crop and feedstock for the production of natural fiber for the manufacture of textile products. Cotton fiber is also blended with polyester and viscose fibers.The textile and clothing industry has been the main driver of Pakistani exports for the last sixty years, in terms of both foreign currency earnings and job creation. The textile industry flourished under official patronage, but lost its advantages in the post quota regime. Its share in exports has declined from 66% in 2005 to 53. 7% in the current 2008-09 financial year. The textile industry is based on relatively low to medium technology, but in spite of this Pakistan has spent US$7. 5 billion on the import of textile machinery over the past ten years (1999-2009).Pakistan did not make any effort to adopt ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 17 of 23 imported technologies for the manufacture of textile machinery by reverse engineering. In view of these shortcomings, the textile industry has continuously suffered productivity losses due to machinery breakdowns and its inability to cope with operational problems. Pakistan is now facing competition from China, India and Bangladesh, in view of their better quality products, higher productivity and other economic advantages.Sugarcane, Molasses, Power Alcohol and Associated Industries Sugarcane is an important cash crop and is a valuable feedstock for the production of sugar and other downstream industries, such as industrial alcohol, chip board and paper. Molasses is a by product of the sugar industry and is the starting raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, which is used as a source of energy for automobiles, as well as the production of organic chemicals, such as aldehydes, acetone, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, isophoron, citric acid, glycerol, yeast and many other derivatives for pharmaceutical and plastic industries.Fruit and Vegetables The various varieties of fruit produced in Pakistan consist of citrus, mango, apples, banana, apricot, guava, grapes and tomatoes. Annual production is estimated at 5. 6 million tons per year. The fruit industry is very diversified and consist of juices, soups and sauces, baby food, bakery products , confectionary and tomato products. The technology for the processing of fruit is decorous more sophisticated because of the high demand for quality products. The industry is required to produce food products both economically and profitably, and this depends upon efficient processes.At the same time, these processes must make do the material in such a way that the final product is attractive to the consumer. The fruit industry and its downstream products have considerable export potential. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Page 18 of 23 Natural Dyes Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly and their use is increasing, especially for dyeing wool, carpets, silk and cotton. The common sources of vegetable dyes are parts of plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruit, cums, barks, and the roots of dye yielding plants.The cultivation of certain trees also yield dye material. Therefore, the utilization of dye yielding plants and tre es will boost the agro-based industry especially in rural areas, leading to rural development and employment creation. Pakistan imports vegetable dyes from India despite the fact that the raw materials for their production are available in Pakistan. Dyes and pigments seduce the largest segment of the industry, with the worlds present value estimated at about US$16 billion per year. Herbal Medicines and Associated productsThe Indian / Pakistani system of medicinesgenerally known as the Ayurvedic System of Medicineis considered a perfect science of life which has evolved from wisdom, experience and logic. Based on scientific observations, it has its origin in the Vedasthe oldest save wisdom circa 6000 BC. Ayurvedic herbal medicines are considered ideal treatments, as they cure the diseases without causing any side effects. Herbal medicines and products now include medicines, health supplements, herbal viewer and toiletry products.Major developments in herbal medicines and beauty pr oducts are now taking place in China, South Korea, Canada and the US, in addition to India. It is estimated that the global market for herbal products now stands at US$62 billion per annum. Pakistan has a vast variety of flora and fauna especially in the northern areas, Azad Kashmir and the foothills of the Himalayas, which need to be explored for beneficial exploitation of these resources. ________________________________________________________________________________________Chapter 2 Page 19 of 23 India has established a Technology Development Board which provides financial assistance to R&D establishments concerned with the development and commercialization of indigenous technology for herbal products for wider domestic applications. There is considerable potential for the development of this sector and collaboration with well known companies such as Hamdard and Qarshi can be sought for joint partnerships for the development of herbal projects. Oils and Fats IndustryConventiona l oils derived from cotton seed, rapeseed and corn are now processed and utilized for the production of bio-fuels in the US and other countries. An alternative source of vegetable oil called Jetropha is now widely cultivated in South and Southeast Asia, especially in Japan, Thailand, China and India. It is a woody and hardy plant, and grows to a height of 3-8 meters. It grows quickly even in poor soils and is not affected by drought and disease. The macro instruction engineering society of Pakistan, in collaboration with Big Bird (Pvt. ) Ltd. as initiated a project for the plantation of Jatropha in Layyah, West Punjab. The Jetropha oil seed contains about 40% of vegetable fat/oil and some toxic materials, which makes it inedible for human and livestock consumption. The process technology for the conversion of Jetropha oil into bio-fuels is well proven and can be adopted in Pakistan. 2. 7 Sources of Raw Materials and Process Technologies for Chemical Industry Development in Pakistan The sector wise salmagundi of chemical industry in Pakistan is as follows PRIMARY INDUSTRIES SOURCES OF RAW MATERIAL ) Petroleum Refineries ii) Fertilizers Imported Crude Oil Local Natural Gas, iii) iv) v) vi) Local Materials, Limestone, frame Imported/Local Ore Locally available ore Local Agricultural Raw Material Cement Iron & Steel Copper Textiles ________________________________________________________

Friday, May 24, 2019

Behaviour aspects

Employee attendance monitoring in the company had been ineffective due to the outdated system of punching time cards. At times some employees were punched in by their friends or coworkers even if they had not yet arrived. Thus, management could not trace how many times an employee was tardy or absent. The problem on employee tardiness had reached abominable proportions that an employee had missed 200 minutes of work in a month. Considering that the company relies on their employees to provide the services that they market to their customers, tardy employees negatively impact the operations of the company.However, the company was worried that the employees would resist a new attendance monitoring system. From the workforce point of view, the old system is easier and much more employee-friendly in the backbone that there are really times when they do not intend to be tardy but circumstance out of their control would cause them to be tardy. Moreover, the system was easy to manipu nove l and employees justify that they maintain the same productivity and output even if they were tardy a number of times. The company justified that degenerative tardiness is a problem that has reached epidemic proportions because employees abuse the old system.Employees are paid in full per hour and if they come in 20 minutes late would mean a huge lost for the company. In order to improve the attendance monitoring of the company, the management invested on a biometric system, wherein employees have to press their thumbs on a scanner and the system logs the employee in or out. The time noted is also more accurate as it includes seconds. However, before the biometric attendance system could be implemented it has to be suffice-up and entrust be a major vary for the employees.To aid in the implementation of the change in the attendance monitoring system, a plan was devised wherein employees will be made to become aware of the problem, the implications of the problem to the overall pr oductivity of the company and the best possible solution to the problem would be the changing of the system (Cameron & Quinn, 2006) . To make the transition to the biometrics attendance system, a general assembly was called for and the attendance report for the whole company was presented to the body.The presentation contained moreover the percentage of work hours, the number of hours lost due to tardiness and the frequency of tardiness for the past year. The session served as the unfreezing of the status quo since employees are made to confront the issue and that change is inevitable. After the presentation, the biometrics was then presented to the employees and what the new system would be (Palmer, Dunford, & Akin, 2009). The employees were asked to go to the HR department for the entering of their thumbprints and personal data. The employees were given a specific effect of time to comply with the required information.The HR then informed the workforce that a trial period for th e new system will be set wherein employees would get used to the new system. This corresponds to the implementation of the actual change. After the 2 months in which the biometrics had been implemented, another general assembly was called, this time it was to present the pronounced improvement of employee attendance and punctuality. This would be the refreezing stage wherein the employees are made to accept the change and that the new system is better than the previous system.Hopefully, the new system will continue to improve the attendance and tardiness in the company to the point when it would cease to be a problem. In order to motivate employees, the management will distribute those who have perfect attendance. References Cameron, K. S. , & Quinn, R. E. (2006). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. (2nd edition) San Francisco Jossey-Bass. Palmer, I. , Dunford, R. , & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change A multiple perspectives approach. (2nd ed. ) Boston Mc Graw-Hill Irwin.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Confucianism vs Taoism

The Teachings of Confucius versus the Tao Te Ching The teachings of Confucius and the Tao Te Ching are two important schools of thought in chinaware. In Confuciuss Analects, he talks by and large of political and social issues and also speaks about how people must govern by following rules and displaying virtuous qualities such as honesty and integrity. Lao Zi on the early(a) hand talks of how the world has a propensity towards balancing itself and that people should govern by going with the flow magical spell the cosmos part out the events of life.He also mentions that people should live a detachment from many things in life such as material objects. Ultimately, the main difference amid the Tao Te Ching and the teachings of Confucius is that the Tao Te Ching says that people should live their life in an ethereal manner by following the forces of nature, whereas Confuciuss teachings have a strict deterrent lesson code that people must abide by. Confuciuss teachings tell peopl e how to act by mentioning what character traits they should have and how to take action accordingly.For example, in the analects Confucius says, He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it (The Analects, Wei Zheng, 1). Lao Zi on the other hand describes the concept of governing in an entirely different manner. He says that, Prizing no treasures keeps people from stealing Thesage governs them all (Tao Te Ching, 2). There is a noticeable difference between the ideas that are presented in the quotes of Confucius and Lao Zi.Confucius talks of ruling others by way of virtue and says that once people see the example being set by a government official, then they will follow it. On a different note, Lao Zi says that people should become quarantined from worldly things in order to encourage others to follow the rules and instill Te (virtue). The Tao Te Ching and the Confucian analects d iffer here because Confucius talks of ruling by setting an example based on morality, whereas Lao Zi talks of governing by doing naught and detaching oneself from material objects.Overall, the method of governing mentioned by Confucius involves worldly actions while Laozis method involves inaction and faith in an otherworldly force to sort issues out. The filmConfuciuswas released in 2010 starring Chow Yun Fat. Given that Chow is a superstar, his casting tends to overshadow the verisimilitude of the film. For example, much of Confucius personal life in the film is fictionalized as we are introduced to his wife and daughter. Similarly, a scene in the movie is sacred to the legendary meeting between Confucius and LaoZiin which Confucius asks for and gets advice. clipthree at 1730. The scene is a bit romanticized though because it features Confucius and Lao Zi meeting on a mountain above clouds. Nevertheless, this scene reflects the ideas of Confucius as a scholar that believes in go verning by morality and Lao Zi as one that believes in governing by inaction. On the mountain, Lao Zi mentions that Confucius believes in acting through rituals and benevolence while Lao Zi himself has the belief that one should act by doing nothing and should gain an otherworldly detachment from things such as desire.He offers Confucius this insight but Confucius politely refuses, saying that he must follow his own path and describing Lao Zis ideas as too ethereal for him to follow (Clip 3). Their conversation illustrates the basis of these two mens ideas. The film portrays Laozi as one who believes in the inwrought course of things. He believes that by doing nothing and going with the flow of things, situations will eventually get better. This idea is even more exemplified when Confucius tells Lao Zi that he thinks he has failed in his mission to knock down the city walls.Laozi tells him to stop trying when you have achieved nothing and maybe the best contribution is no contribut ion and however reveals his Daoist principles (Clip 3). All in all, the film Confucius, Lao Zi is portrayed as a man who believes in otherworldly solutions to problems while Confucius believes in strict, absolute ones. A portraying of Confuciuss ideas of governing is also apparent in the beginning of the film. When talking to the emperor of Lu, Confucius mentions that people should respect the law because theyre civil and honest and have integrity to make their homeland a better place.This approach involves making an effort to have those specific character traits and differs from the teachings of the Tao Te Ching because it involves what Lao Zi called chasing the light (Tao Te Ching, 3). He says that too much light blinds, which in this case is the seeking of morality, and that it is better to want less instead of more. The confliction of Confucian and Daoist ideas illustrates the profound differences they have in regards to how people should act and be governed. Confucianism invo lves adhering to a strict moral code whereas Daoism involves going with the natural order of hings and by acting through inaction. Though the ideologies of Confucius and Lao Zi differ a great deal, they do have one similarity. They both serve as major moral codes that many people in China still follow today. Biblography Legge, James. The Analects. N. p. n. p. , n. d. Web. http//ctext. org/analects/wei-zheng. 6 Mar. 2013. Red Pine. Tao Te Ching. N. p. , n. d. Web. https//elearning. uh. edu/bbcswebdav/pid-394869-dt-content-rid-1739781_1/courses/H_20131_CHNS_3354_11272/red_pine_dao. htm. 6 Mar. 2013