Friday, December 27, 2019
Nurses have always led the way in promoting and improving the healthcare environment for the clients. The nurse-patient relationship is by many considered the core of nursing. The nursing practice incorporates so many concepts that guide and assist nurses to become better professionals in their day-to-day interactions with clients, colleagues, and other professionals. The concepts Professionalism, Communication, and Personhood form the backbone of the nursing practice and thus are essential characteristics that all nurses should possess and use in their practice. A great nurse understands, exhibits and is able to combine these qualities flawlessly. Thus, this paper links the concepts of Communication, Professionalism, and Personhood, and shows how proper use of these tools in nursing lead to a better client-nurse relationship and positive health outcomes. Moreover, this paper also incorporates a scenario of KitwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Enriched Model of Dementia Care and a rationale for how the scenarios are therapeutic or non-therapeutic. According to J.F Giddens, Communication is defined as a process of interaction between individuals in which symbols are used to create, exchange, and interpret messages about ideas, emotions and mind states. (PP) Communication is a lifelong learning process for a nurse. Good communication between nurses and patients is essential for the successful outcome of individualized nursing care of each patient. It is important in building relationships with clientsShow MoreRelatedThe Paradigm of 21st Century Nursing: Theories of Caring and Practice2625 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Part 1 The Paradigm of 21st Century Nursing One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing:
Thursday, December 19, 2019
A Novel Memory forensics Technique for Windows 10 Abstract Volatile memory forensics, henceforth referred to as memory forensics, is a subset of digital forensics, which deals with the preservation of the contents of memory of a computing device and the subsequent examination of that memory. The memory of a system typically contains useful runtime information. Such memories are volatile, causing the contents of memory to rapidly decay once no longer supplied with power. Using memory forensic techniques, it is possible to extract an image of the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s memory while it is still running, creating a copy that can be examined at a later point in time, even after the system has been turned off and the data contained within the original RAM has dissipated. This paper describe the implementation of the technique that collect volatile artifacts extracted from the RAM dump and Hibernation file of Windows 10 operating system and shows the extracted data of various process of the system. Keywords: Windows forensics, Memory forensics, Volatile data, Volatile digital evidence 1. Introduction The use of memory forensic allows the creation of a snapshot of a system at a particular point in time, known as a memory image. Memory typically contains that information which is never written to disk. Memory forensic allows the extraction of various types of forensically significant information that would have been disappeared when the system was turned off. Such information can include runningShow MoreRelatedCapgras Delusion2260 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesgiving the face its emotional significance is damaged. The only way patients make sense of the absence of this emotional arousal is to form the belief that the person he is looking at is an imposter . Bauer (1984), using a technique normally employed in forensic lie detection, noted that the prosopagnosic patient revealed elevated skin-conductance responses (SCR) to previously familiar faces even though he could not consciously identify them. Normal individuals show reduced SCR to familiarRead MoreMobile Phone Has Turned Into The Eye Catching Business For Criminals5499 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesbusiness for criminals. There ought to be a dependable technique for protecting the instrument from thieves. Our paper proposes another inventive, reliable, nitwit confirmation security measure for phones developing voice acknowledgment and fingerprint acknowledgment. Our proposition requests neither outer equipment nor additional expense. The above strategies have no hardship for the client dissimilar to the present security systems. This technique can be received all around in all models of cell phonesRead MoreCloud Computing Security67046 Words Ã |Ã 269 Pages................................................................ 89 Domain 9: Incident Response ............................................................................................................... ............................... 93 Domain 10: Application Security ........................................................................................................................................ 103 Domain 11: Encryption and Key Management ............................................Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 Pagespublisher. Thomson Higher Education 10 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA For more information about our products, contact us at: Thomson Learning Academic Resource Center 1-800-423-0563 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online at http://www.thomsonrights.com. Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to email@example.com. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 07 ExamView Ã ® and ExamViewRead MoreRed Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Security Guide50668 Words Ã |Ã 203 Pagesassists users and administrators in learning the processes and practices of securing workstations and servers against local and remote intrusion, exploitation and malicious activity. Focused on Red Hat Enterprise Linux but detailing concepts and techniques valid for all Linux systems, this guide details the planning and the tools involved in creating a secured computing environment for the data center, workplace, and home. With proper administrative knowledge, vigilance, and tools, systems runningRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesissued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademar k ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. ISBN-13: 978-0-273-68774-0 ISBN-10: 0-273-68774-3 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Social Justice as a Mirage and Terms. Answer: Social Justice refers to the concept that is fair and just in relation of the individual human being and the society. The degree of social justice is measured by the explicit and the implicit terms for the distribution of the wealth, opportunity of the activities of an individual and the privileges in the society. With the help of social justice, the human beings are assigned the rights and duties in the institutions of the society (Pennock 2015). This enables the receiving of the basic advantages and the burden of the cooperation. Not all the people can be equally entitled to respect their fellow mates. The attainable degree of social justice is unfeasible and it may lead to the destruction of the liberty of the individuals. There is as such no analysis to state what is socially unjust. This is because there are no such rules and regulations to determine the observance that would secure the individual characters and the social groups to appear as just. Social justice is chief to bot h social democracy and socialism as well. Social justice cannot be similar in temperament with the idea for the rule of law. Friedrich Hayek supported the idea of social justice but later on realized that the concept was meaningless (Hayek 2012). The specific groups that want to pressurize apply the phrase social justice by providing the demand in an unquestionable manner. These groups often use the social justice as a means of the political scenario so that they transfer from the other groups. Hayek comments that the phrase does not mean anything as the concept is fraudulent. There is inequality in the society of today and hence the respective governments tend to treat the people in an unjust manner. Not everyone can be equally provided social justice. The social justice is an indefinable concept. The objective of the theoretical framework of falters at the structural foundation when it is analyzed. Hayek wanted to meticulously define the term social justice and the meaning that people attain from it (Lister 2013). The concept of the distributive justice among the people of the society is understood as the characteristic of the conduct of an individual. Hayek defines the sentiments as an instrument for the destruction of the values that are there in a free civilization. He shows the risks that are involved in these instruments of the fine sentiments. These offend the strength of the moral feelings of an individual. Hayek argues against the superstitious notion of social justice that is followed by the men and women of the society. The men and women of the society according to Hayek regard the social justice as a new religion and are recognized by the good man. Hayek has made valuable contributions towards the erosion of the individual liberties. He encouraged the beginning of totalitarianism (Lewis 2012). Social justice cannot be clearly defined and Hayek provides his argument on it that is not reliable in nature. Hayek argues that in a society, that is complex in nature and the individuals in this society are free to pursue their needs. This cannot enable a unified concept of justice for all the inhabitants of the society. Hayek argues that the political outfits and the law should not enable the granting of the certain special privileges or the issuing of specific orders to the particular individuals and groups in this complex society. Hence, the inequalities in the expectations cannot become the reason for the balancing of the side for the people who are less fortunate in nature (Lapum et al. 2012). Hayek does not provide a clear definition of the term social justice. His dismissal of the use of the social justice by the society is quite early. The Law tries to balance between the privileged and the unprivileged by taking from one and then providing to the other. This tends to incre ase the wealth and well-being of the individuals in the long term. Justice is to be looked by the actions of the individuals in concern and not by the impulsive order of the events. Hayek states the concept of social justice being meaningless. There should be the maintenance of the order in the society and not providing the particular needs of an individual. However, not providing individual needs to the public in the society may lead to the chaos in the society. The reasons provided by Hayek are in an abstract form (Bogotch 2014). There is no way that can control the actions of the individual to attain their needs. Nevertheless, he also states how the individual can benefit the society that undermines the value that is derived from the society. References Bogotch, I., 2014. Educational theory: The specific case of social justice as an educational leadership construct. InInternational handbook of educational leadership and social (in) justice(pp. 51-65). Springer Netherlands. Hayek, F.A., 2012.Law, legislation and liberty: a new statement of the liberal principles of justice and political economy. Routledge. Lapum, J., Hamzavi, N., Veljkovic, K., Mohamed, Z., Pettinato, A., Silver, S. and Taylor, E., 2012. A performative and poetical narrative of critical social theory in nursing education: An ending and threshold of social justice.Nursing Philosophy,13(1), pp.27-45. Lewis, P., 2012. Emergent properties in the work of Friedrich Hayek.Journal of Economic Behavior Organization,82(2), pp.368-378. Lister, A., 2013. The mirage of social justice: Hayek against (and for) Rawls.Critical Review,25(3-4), pp.409-444. Pennock, J.R., 2015.Democratic political theory. Princeton University Press.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Mosquito By John Updike The Mosquito By John Updike This poem by Updike describes an ordinarily dull and bland, if not even annoying pest and one of his dealings with such a creature. This pest is of course a mosquito, which seems to have made its way into his bedroom, looking to make a meal out of him. The main point that I think this poem is trying to convey is that sometimes ordinary or dull occurrences can be made into a game, and had fun with. No one likes mosquitoes, but when you think of one as an opponent and it is either kill, or be killed, then you can understand the mosquito's point of view. The speaker, who is Updike himself, seems to want to convey a melancholy affect with the use of his nonchalant language, as when he makes the mosquito a woman. Who knows, or even cares what a mosquito is, when it is bugging you, you just want it dead. Which is what he wants, but the tone remains laid back and lazy. It almost has a sarcastic or ironic twinge to it. It makes this huge melodrama out of something that is quite ordinary. Yet he professes the mosquito's innocence of wrongdoing. All she wanted was a necessary meal, lest she die, she had to drink of his "fragrant lake of blood." The diction of the poem is just wonderful and spectacular. When he says "fine wire of her whine she walked," we all know that he is describing how a mosquito hums along and winds through the air, with no direct course, but the picture it creates in your mind is very clear. When he uses"ominous" in the second line, it foreshadows some deep, dark thing to come. The word fragrant in the second stanza reveals that the mosquito probably cannot see him, but only smells his delicious blood, as one smells a home cooked meal from one's bedroom, down the hall. When he describes himself as a "lavish field of food," the word lavish jumps out at you. Once again saying that she in fact did not want to hurt anyone, but only to feast on this wonderful meal before her. He compares himself with her as if they were raging in some game or battle; he calls them "opponents." He uses "thread" and "fine wire" to describe her movement, almost as if she were a puppet. He gives her human characteristics by saying she has a "nose," and saying that she was"thankful." He says his death movement was "cunning and strong," as if it took some great skill to kill a mosquito. He describes himself as a "Gargantua," as if to say that his opponent never really had a chance. He describes his skin as a "feast," reinforcing the fact that she was only out to get a meal. She was "Lulled" by his blood, as if it had sung her a lull-a-by, as if his blood was a self-defense mechanism, to put to sleep those who would attack him. The only remorse he had was a "small welt," and a welt is a small enough thing in its self, I mean, its not a bruise or anything, and a small welt, well, that's hardly a welt at all. He describes himself as a "murderer" and the mosquito as "murdered," because she was, in fact, innocent of any wrongdoing. All that she was doing was getting herself a meal, and he had killed her for it. There is much great imagery in this poem. To start off with, when he describes the flight of the mosquito as walking on a fine wire, we actually see this insect walking on a fine wire, and can see that to be true in our minds from past experiences. The mosquito's camouflage is obviously darkness, and when she betrays this, she does so with the hum of her wings, or her voice as in line 3. All that he was to her was a "fragrant lake of blood." This helps to put the reader in the shoes of the mosquito. All that she saw was like, to us, this big lake of coke. What crime is it to go and take a few gulps of the coke lake then? Once again, he compares his body to a big pile of delicious food. Just imagine your favorite food. Now imagine Shasta Lake drained, and filled with this food. This is what she sees. Now imagine that
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Since the Second New Deal and the Social Security Act of 1935 the elderly and disabled of the United States have relied upon their monthly checks from the government to survive. However, from its inception the Social Security system has been plagued with numerous problems. Out of all the problems that have enveloped the system. There are only two that have seriously threaten the existence of the entire Social Security system. The first problem that jeopardized the existence of the system was in 1937 when there was a movement in the courts to declare the actions and creation of the system as being unconstitutional. This movement to prevent the establishment of the Social Security system never reached the Supreme Court. The second and most recent problem to face the system is by far the greatest threat ever to the existence of the system. This new threat is one that has been perpetuated by the inability of the system to solve the problem. The problem that is at hand today is that the Social Security system will not be able to pay its recipients their deserved funds. This problem was created by the fact that longevity has increased and that in the next 5 to 10 years the baby boomers will become eligible for Social Security. What is unique about the problem is that the system?s funds will not be completely depleted until the year 2029 . The problem of depleted funds in the system is created because the system is unable to adjust to the change in life style and cost of living. Thus the system over time will not take in enough money or give out enough to support the recipient with the proper funds to survive. However as a result of a period of healthy economic growth, reduced unemployment and low inflation, the long-range solvency predictions about the Social Security system have improved over the past year, according to the Social Security Board of Trustees . The robust economy we are currently enjoying and the enactment of the Balanced Budget Act support this statement. With the past year of economic success the board predicts that the system will remain solvent until 2032 . Kenneth S. Apfel, commissioner of the Social Security Administration, calls the system's long-term financial problems manageable, but warns against relying on the often unpredictable economy to aid in the future of the ailing system. It is clear that action must be taken to stave off a serious Social Security crisis. As a Senator from Pennsylvania I am in a difficult and unique position. Pennsylvania is a state with two vastly different spectrums of the Social Security system. The first is the urban spectrum where most of the recipients are barley living above the poverty line. There are two causes for this problem. First, the cost of living in the city is exorbitantly expensive. Second, many of the urban recipients had jobs that were low paying; thus the amount of return on their Social Security checks was low. The second is the rural spectrum where most of the people are having few problems with the system. This is because the cost of living in the countryside is low. The returns that the recipients get from the system enable them to live a comfortable life. Because of the vastly different spectrums within my state I must be careful when supporting reforms for the Social Security system. I can not support a reform that will hurt one spectrum and benefit the other. Also being a Senator I must keep in mind how the reforms will effect the rest of the nation. I must keep the mentality of a statesman at all times. Being aware of the crisis and the circumstances in my state and the nation there are several reforms that I feel should never be implemented into the system. One such reform is the proposal to privatize the system. Supporters of privatizing the Social Security system argue that privatization provides the individual with control of the Social Security portion of their retirement plan. Thus allowing investors to achieve higher rates of return and higher benefits than Social Security provides. I feel this reform is not acceptable. In order to change the system to a
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Summary In Praise of the F Word Essays Summary In Praise of the F Word Paper Summary In Praise of the F Word Paper Summary: Ã¢â¬Å"In Praise of the Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ WordÃ¢â¬ In this article, Ã¢â¬Å"In praise of the Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ wordÃ¢â¬ , Marry Sherry makes the point that in order to help kids do their school work and get their education; they must be threatened with failing. Before she started teaching her class, she would blame the poor academic skills our kids have today on drugs, divorce and other impediments to concentration necessary for doing well in school. She had an experience with her sons grade 12 English teacher. The teacher told Marry that because her son was talking in class, she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to move him since he was a senior but was going to flunk him. At first she was a little put off by the fact that the teacher was going to take sure a drastic measure, but after a moment of thinking she realized that the teacher was making a reasonable decision. Marry goes on to talk about passing students who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t mastered school work cheat themselves, as well as their future employers who expect them to have those basic skills from high school. Their excuse for not having those skills is that kids canÃ¢â¬â¢t learn if they come from bad environments, but really the reason is that kids donÃ¢â¬â¢t put the right amount of school work into their lives as they should. Students that attend night classes are more determined to get their education and they make it their number one priority. Marry really believes in using flunking to help motivate kids to work harder because passing kids who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t actually doing the work are just going to suffer in the long run. Sherry, Marry Ã¢â¬Å"In Praise of the Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ WordÃ¢â¬ Developing Reading Versatility. 2003: Page 200-201
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Enterpreneurship in action - Essay Example Their Advanced Information Based Allocation system automates allocation, booking and real time online tracking with super-sonic efficiency, enabling the company to manage a near limitless number of couriers with an exceptional customer service. Customers enter their collection and delivery addresses on the website, and the system sends the details to the courier best placed to do the job. The company has already made its mark in the previously inefficient world of courier services. Its website boasts an average delivery time of just 40 minutes. Annual sales have grown from ?100,000 to ?1m in recent years. Fast Courier has doubled in size over the last twelve months, and is on target to double again during 2013 with 40 vehicles. Next on the agenda is moving from Portsmouth to offer the courier services to other cities. There might be limited scope for the volume of business in Portsmouth; the scope is endless in other cities. Objectives The company wants to expand business across vari ous cities of United Kingdom. They are emphasizing on adopting state of art technology to provide fast courier service. Fast Courier Ltd is using eco friendly cars to provide service to customers. They want to improve online tracking system to increase efficiency in service delivery. The company has the objective to expand courier delivery network outside Portsmouth. Mission The company has a mission to provide eco friendly courier service. They want provide service beyond the expectation of customers. Company Summary The company was founded by Tina and Mike in the year 2009. Start up cost of the business was ?380,000. They gave importance to provide fast courier service to customers from day one. They have used state of art technologies like online parcel tracking to improve value delivery process. Company Ownership Tina and Mike is the owner of the company. Tina supervises technical aspects of the courier service and Mike concentrates on finance and marketing activities of the com pany. Market Trend in Courier Industry Courier industry has direct relationship with logistics sector. Logistics service includes air freight, transportation of parcels, street haulage, luggage compartment and warehousing, freights and postal services. There is more than 2,320,000 people working in supply chain and logistic sectors, which contributes 8% of the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce. Logistic sector contributes nearly ?86.54 billion to GDP of the country. Cycle courier service is essential to provide fast service to customers in some cities due to heavy traffic congestion. There are more than ninety thousand people working in the courier industry of the country. There are more than 10,800 workplaces across the country. National and regional data East Midlands Ã¢â¬â There are almost 156,600 employees work in the logistic sector. Out of these 156,600 employees, 6,800 people are associated with courier industry, which contributes 4% of the logistics supply chain departmen t of the region. East England Ã¢â¬â
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
How has the Anglican Catholic Tradition shaped the Theology and Liturgy of the Marriage Service in Common Worship - Essay Example It is a social act that joins two people in a long lasting commitment and a promise to fulfill their marriage vows. Thousands of years back, considering the example of early men, who were hunters and wanderers changing their habitats every now and then. They were illiterate and uncivilized people who did not have any technology, luxury, means of communication, storage system for food etc. hence they lived for today only and had no moral values. There was no concept or need of marriage as they did whatever they liked to, involved in unethical sexual acts and women gave birth to children without knowing who the father was nor the offspring cared to find about their father and knew only their mother. This act kept going for years and gradually with an extreme need of change the women started realizing her responsibilities towards making own house and how to make the living beautiful. The men being the hunters remained busy all day long whereas the women invented the idea of cultivating crops in fields and made various kind of trials to grow better plants and selected those good in taste and for health. After the transition of men from hunters to farmers the concept of marriage arose as man being the owner of lands and properties will remain superior to a woman who will carry his child only by devoting herself to him and will not have relationship with other men. BIBLICAL DEFINITION OF MARRIAGE: The ceremony and reception programs of marriage are not discussed in detail in the holy book Bible. However it does describe the marriage and its vows in many chapters. It is divine and sacred act and is common since Jewish times. Hence it is very essential to follow the commands and vows of marriage set by God which gives emphasis over the importance of this sacred occasion of matrimony. As said in the vows; that the couple will remain faithful to each other, stand together through good times and bad ,give love and care, in sickness and in health and till death do us part. A less importance is given to ceremony and its festivities and more to the contract made between the individuals according to religious perspective. Matrimony is a sacred agreement in the eyes of God. It is therefore essential for a man and woman to marry each other according to religion as said by Jesus that it is forbidden for a man and woman to live together without marriage and the relationship between such a couple cannot be termed as Ã¢â¬Å"husband and wifeÃ¢â¬ . (John 4). Hence the scriptures of Bible reveal that holy union of two people in the eyes of God is the most sacred relationship fulfilling all the commands by God. CHRISTIANITY: Christianity is a monotheistÃ¢â¬â¢s ( believes in one God) religion founded on the basis of lessons given by Jesus Christ ( in Canonical Gospels and New Testaments). It is also the largest religion in the world. It says that Jesus Christ is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Son and the protector of mankind due to which He is also referred to as Messiah. The f ollowers of this religion are called as Christians. This religion is divided into three divisions: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. The Roman Catholic churches were separated from Eastern Orthodox churches in 1054 (AD).Protestantism was set in insixteenth century as a result of a protest from a group of people against Roman Catholic churches and hence a separate group of churches was originated. The religion started to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Contracts - Coursework Example The consultantÃ¢â¬â¢s documents were submitted on time, planning permissions gained and quotes received from various contractors. The project was awarded under NEC3-ECC conditions of contract. The Project duration was agreed to be 26 months and payment to the contractor through interim valuations. The project was delayed due to late payment, lack of workmen on site, work behind schedule and late project administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions. The contention between the parties was about payment, contractual standing of contractorÃ¢â¬â¢s program and principle guiding claim and dispute resolution. The project ran into great difficulties after the 10th month, accusation were exchanged, agreed payments not made and the workmen were pulled off site by the contractor which led to dispute. Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 General Principle of Construction contracts 4 Dispute resolution guidelines 5 Comparable Analysis of NEC3-ECC, JCTO5 SBC/Q 6 NEC3- ECC 8 JCTO5 SBC/Q 9 Clear Difference 10 Recommended Approach 11 References/Bibliography 14 Introduction AOS Development is a national housing development company in Edinburgh and has embarked on eighty housing units developments in Skye, Scotland. The consultantÃ¢â¬â¢s documents were submitted on time, planning permissions gained and quotes received from various contractors. ... The project ran into great difficulties after the 10th month, accusation were exchanged, agreed payments not made and the workmen were pulled off site by the contractor which led to dispute. It should be noted that the case did not specify the order in which the causes of delay accrued on the project site. Given the facts of the case each item will be taken in seriatim or in the order by which it was stated in the case. To illustrate: The case stipulated that the delay Ã¢â¬Å"was due to late payment, lack of workmen on site, work behind schedule and late project administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s instructionsÃ¢â¬ . For purposes of this paper, it would be assumed that the delay in payment was the sole and primary reason for the lack of workmen on the site, since the amount that was due which would ideally be used to compensate the workers were not credited to the account of the contractor. This would leave the contractor no choice but to let go of the workers to prevent further losses in his co mpany. As a result of the delays in payment, which in turn resulted in the lack of workmen on the site, work will definitely be behind schedule. General Principle of Construction contracts Construction contracts define the relationship of all the parties concerned with the sole purpose and aim of completing the project on time or sooner while following the specification with fealty. In fine contracts not only define the relationship of all the parties concerned but contract also define the parameters of the obligation of each parties. As predicated contracts defines the relationship and the obligation of each party arising from the contracts (Savage & Jones Mitchell,
Friday, November 15, 2019
How certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another Rules of Mendelian Genetics Mendels Law is the study about how a certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism. This study was derived from an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel (1822 C 1884) who is considered as the father of genetics. He believed that natural laws such as those that govern inheritance could be explained as mathematical relationships. In his experiments, Mendel used ordinary pea plants to study the traits, he pair these pea plants with considering the control over each reproduction to prevent the pea plant from self fertilizing. The traits that are being observed are the colour of a plants flower, the location on the plant, the shape and colour of the pea pods, the shape and colour of the seeds and the length of the plant stems. Pea plants are used because they are easily available and can be manipulated in large amount within a short period of time. (Starr, Evers Starr, 2010) Mendels approach for his experiment was to transfer pollen from the stamen (which is the male reproductive organ that contains male sex cells) and to the pistil (the female sex cell which contain female reproductive organs) of another pea plant. In the first experiment, he took two pea plants with true breeding variant; one with round seed and another with wrinkled seed. The offspring that were produced in the first generation (F1 generation) had all round seeds. This shows that the pea plant will only take the dominant trait that is the round seeds. Next, Mendel crossed two of the F1 generation plant together, he obtained a result of 75% of the plant is round seeds whereas 25% of the pea plants are wrinkled seeds. Based on this result, a ratio of approximately 3:1 will be deduced for the traits in F2 generation. As a result of these experiments, Mendel was able to state three generalizations about the way characteristics are transmitted from one generation to the next in pea plants. (Science Clarified, 2010). From this pea plants experiment, Mendel derived 3 theories that support on genetic inheritance ? Mendels first principle of genetics, the law of segregation states that the sex cell of a plant or animal may contain one factor (allele) for different traits but not both factors needed to express the traits. Each offspring, however, would only display the characteristics of one parent and not a blend of the two different characteristics of the parents. ? Mendels second principle of genetics, the law of independent assortment states that characteristics are inherited independently from other characteristics. Any trait in a generation is independent of other traits if the parents of the generation have two or more traits that vary from each other. ? Mendels third principle, principle of dominance states that each inherited characteristic is determined by two heredity genes, one from each parent which determines whether a gene will be dominant or recessive. This means that the trait of one parent must be dominant over the trait of the other parent, and so the dominant trait would be displayed by the offspring. (Minnesota State University, 2010; Nigel, D. P.,2006 ). Introduction to traits of family There have been variations in different characteristic in my family genes. The variations of the genes are mainly caused by inheritance from my parents who carry a genotype of certain traits; this trait is passed on from one generation to another. The dominant allele of the traits of the genotype would be the phenotype of the offspring. I have chosen to look into the appearance of one-sided dimples and blood types in my family genes. Cheek dimples occur when the muscles underneath the surface of the skin are shorter than the skin on top, so when you smile, the muscle pulls the skin at its attachment point, thus folding the top skin as it is pulled back. Chin dimples are actually a cleft chin in which the bones do not fuse completely and the outer skin lies on top of the cleft bone, revealing the structure underneath. In most cases, facial dimples appear on the cheeks, and they are typically not visible until someone smiles. However, some people only have a dimple on one side; this physical trait can actually be rather endearing (Smith, S. E., 2010). The look of dimples can also vary; as an inherited trait, unusual dimples can be passed on through multiple generations of a family. Dimples occurrence can be relatively related to genetic inheritance, dimples are dominant trait that will be pass on from the parents (K-show, 2008). If you inherit the genes for dimples, there may be other factors during your developmen t that could lengthen the muscles, or allow full closure of the cleft chin. Next, all humans can be typed for the ABO blood group. There are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O. There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types. The specific combination of these four components determines an individuals type in most cases (Dennis ONeil, 2010). Every individual inherits one blood type allele from each their biological mother and their biological father. Based on the alleles of a person, the blood group genotype of the person can be determined. The O allele is the recessive allele amongst the blood group alleles. A person with blood group A can have either IA IA or IA IO as their genotype. Type B blood is produced when an individual has either genotype IB IB or IB IO. Genotype IO IO results in type O blood while type AB blood results from genotype IA IB (Windelspecht, 2007). Analysis Based on the phenotype occurrence in my family, I have come out with a research based on the traits on genotypes in my family. In this research, Ive taken consideration of the variation in traits from my parents and siblings; my brother and sister. One-sided dimples In my family, my father carries the gene of one-sided dimple, my mother do not contain dimple, my sister contains one-sided dimple and my brother and me do not contain dimple. Based on the data I had collected, a pedigree chart is drawn to illustrate the traits in my family. Figure 1 : pedigree chart on one-sided dimple of my family Since one-sided dimple is considered to be an autosomal dominant traits. From this pedigree chart illustrated above, my father have a phenotype of one-sided dimples, he would be either be carrying a homozygous dominant (DD) or heterozygous dominant (Dd) genotypes. On the other hand, my mother would be carrying the homozygous recessive (dd) genotype. My sister also carries the one-sided dimple trait; therefore she also be either having the genotype of DD or Dd. My brother and I do not have dimples, therefore why we would have carried the dd trait. Since, allele of our genes cant be seen; therefore we could only predict which of the possibility outcome the genotype of each individual belongs to. Based on the different possible allele, I have built a Punnets square to list out all the possibility outcomes of the genotypes outcome of the offspring from my parents depending on which genotype my parent possesses. D d d Dd dd d Dd dd D D d Dd Dd d Dd Dd ( ii ) ( i ) ( ii ) Figure 2 : Punnet square based on parents genotype? Based on the Punnet square ( i ), the possibility of homozygous dominant allele is being used. From this point of view, the outcome of a mixture of DD and dd would result in a Dd gamete. Therefore, based on the result, the offspring produced would be heterozygous dominant (Dd). The probability of the offspring produce by my parents to be heterozygous dominant would takes up 100%, this means that there would not be any possibilities of any offspring not having one-sided dimples. In addition, no offspring would also me homozygous dominant to one-sided dimples. On the other hand, in Punnet square ( ii ), heterozygous dominant (Dd) allele is being used, the possibility outcome of allele from the combination of Dd and dd would result in a Dd or dd offspring. The probability of a heterozygous dominant (Dd) gamete would be 50%, whereas the probability of the homozygous recessive (dd) gamete would also be 50%. There would not be any homozygous dominant offspring with one-sided dimple being produced. After analysing both the Punnet square, I came to conclusion that that my family follows the genotype of Punnet square ( ii ). This is because in my family, among the siblings, we have a variation between having one-sided dimples and not having dimples. Therefore, from the possibility of Punnet square ( i ), all the offspring would have dimples. Nevertheless, in my family, my brother and I do not have dimples whereas my sister have one-sided dimple. So, it can be said that the possibilities in Punnet square ( ii ) would be much more accurate. It shows that there are variations between gametes which have and have not got one-sided dimples. This could clearly explains why the occurrence of one-sided dimples only on my sister. Blood type A blood test had been carried out to determine our blood type in my family. From the result, it is shown that my father is tested to be blood group O, my mother is tested to be blood group A, my brother is tested to be blood group O, my sister is tested to be blood group A and lastly I am tested to be blood group O. Based on the data I had collected, a pedigree chart is drawn to illustrate the traits in my family. Figure 3 : Pedigree chart of blood group in my family From the pedigree chart, my father has blood group O, the possible genotypes for his allele would be IoIo. This would also apply to my brother and I, we both also contain the possible genotype allele of IoIo. On the other hand, my mother has blood group A, the possible genotypes for her allele would be IAIA or IAIO. My sister also has blood group A, she would also have the possible genotypes for her allele is IAIA or IAIO. By sorting out the possible genotypes in the allele, the data will be analysed into a Punnet table for a clearer outlook on all the possibilities from the combination of both the genotypes from my parents. The Punnet square will show the different combination that will result in a variation of offspring. IO IO IA IOIA IOIA IO IOIO IOIO IO IO IA IOIA IOIA IA IOIA IOIA ( i ) ( ii ) Figure 4 : Punnet square based on parents genotype Based on the Punnet square ( i ), the genotypes of my fathers allele is IOIO , whereas my mothers possible genotype is stated as IAIA . The outcome of this mixture results in the possibility of an offspring with only IOIA, which is blood group A. The probability of the offspring becoming a blood group A would then be 100%. None of them would be of blood group O. In Punnet square ( ii ) the genotype of my fathers allele is IOIO, whereas my mothers possible genotype is IAIO . The possible genotypes of the offspring produced by this combination of alleles will be genotype IOIO and genotype IAIO. The offspring could have a variation of blood type O or blood type A. The possibility of getting blood type O is 50% and the possibility of getting blood type A is also 50%. After analysing both the Punnet square, I can conclude that my family follow the genotypes as stated in Punnet square ( ii ). This is because in my family, among the siblings, we have a variation between blood group A and blood group B. Therefore, from the possibility of Punnet square ( i ), all the offspring would result in having blood group O. Nevertheless, in my family, my sister has blood group A whereas my brother and I have blood group O. So, it can be said that the possibilities in Punnet square ( ii ) would be much more accurate. It shows that there are variations between gametes which have the different group type. This could clearly explain why the occurrence in variance of different blood type within different people. ? Conclusion The study of Mendels Law leads us to enhance more on our genetic inheritance. Knowing our inheritance may help us to study a large range of different traits; like hair colour, iris colour, dimples, and eyes. We will be able to notify and recognize the different genetic variation, which will also help in preventing certain disorder from spreading through reproduction. A few of the disorder that are genetically inheritance are like Downs syndrome, Turner syndrome, sickle-cell anemia, colour blindness and haemophilia. Prevention towards this kind of disorder will widely safe many misfortune life of infants. Mendels Law do not only emphasis on human trait, it is used in many agricultural field to improve the production of crops. The seeds of the corn plant is modified and paired genetically to improve its taste, colour, quantity and quality. These seed are being paired to obtain better traits from different types of fruits. The seasonal fruits can be planted all year round now, the fruits are mostly seedless; all these are from the discovery of genetic inheritance. Not only that, Mendels law had also helped me in this research regarding the genotype of different traits in my family. For one-sided dimples, Ive found out from the Punnet square that, my father is heterozygous dominant pairing with my mum with homozygous recessive that will result in a mixture of heterozygous dominant and homozygous recessive offspring. For the blood type, Ive found that my father is is IOIO, whereas my mothers possible genotype is IAIO. In conclusion, Mendels law can be used to illustrate inheritance traits; the Punnets square can help us visualize all the genotype of the traits. This enables us to learn our genotypes based on our phenotypes shown, that is the one-sided dimple and blood type. It is important for us to study and understand our patterns of inheritance.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Tim Burton Style Analysis Tim Burton has achieved much fame for his imaginative movies and his quirky remakes of old classics such as Alice, Batman, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. It is in Edward Scissorhands though, a heartfelt story about an outsider looking in, that Burton shows off his true skills as a director. Using point of view, setting, and motifs his film becomes not just a good movie, but an amazing classic. Burton uses point of view to show the characters perspective and to fill in the missing gaps in the characters history in the form of flashbacks.For example, one of the beginning scenes in the movie show that the devout woman looks out the window and sees the other woman of the neighborhood flocking together, yet not inviting her to join them. It shows that the woman is an outcast, and is not included in things. Another scene shows EdwardÃ¢â¬â¢s dejected face and then flashes over to a scene of Kim goofing off with her boyfriend. It lets the viewer understand that Edward is interested romantically in Kim, and thus upset that she is involved with someone else. This is a more subtle technique, and makes the scene more memorable to the viewer because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come right out and say it.As opposed to telling the audience about something, Burton prefers to let them see for themselves. To show Edwards origins, Burton has Edward looking out the window and has a flashback about how he was created. Burton also uses setting to a magical extent. Burton is an admirer of over-exaggeration, and this is evident in his distinction of the neighborhood and EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢s castle. Whereas the community is bright a cheery, with houses of alternating color and rather small proportions, the castle is dark and opposing. All the houses in the community donÃ¢â¬â¢t have more than four feet between them, and even the backyards are visible from the street.Burton also exaggerates the looming castleÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation by putting it on a mountain. Burton purposefully designs the community to be the homey, picturesque American dream while EdwardÃ¢â¬â¢s castle is the definition of gloom and doom. Yet when Peg first comes to the entrance of the castle, she encounters an amazing garden, much more beautiful than anything thing the people in the community could make, showing us that our perceptions arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always right. Burton often uses motifs in his movies and Edward Scissorhands is no different. Among many, one of the motifs Burton uses is conformity vs. ndividuality. BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s movies all carry common threads, and like all of BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s previous main characters, Edward is an outcast. He is a spark of creativity in an otherwise dull society. The citizens of the community choose to conform and the all have flat personalities. One is either a maneater or a motherly type or some other cliche, and that part seems to encompass the rest of their personality. While Edward, who is so different from the way he looks to the way he acts, seems to be the only human character. His personality possesses many layers.The citizens also dress bright and cheery is a retro-style, while Edward with his uncontrollable hair and pale skin looks like a gritty Goth. In conclusion, BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s skill shines throughout the entire movie. Using point of view, setting, motifs, and other style techniques, Burton makes Edward Scissorhands a true hit. Tim BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s unorthodox style gives new standards to the movie business, and delivers heartwarming stories about misconceptions and finding yourself. With Tim BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s masterful skill and playful humor, it becomes obvious why Edward Scissorhands is such a hit. Gigi Orphali 12-8-11 p. 5-6
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Rape victims, survivors of plane crashes, combat veterans, and others who have experienced extremely traumatic events may react emotionally with a posttraumatic stress disorder. This reaction is characterized by involuntary reexperiencing of the traumatic events, especially the original feelings of shock, horror, and fear, in dreams or flashbacks. In addition, victims experience an emotional numbing in relation to everyday events, associated with feelings of alienation from other people. Finally, the emotional pain of this reaction can result in an increase of various symptoms, such as sleep problems, guilt about surviving, difficulty in concentrating, and an exaggerated startle response (Calkins, 1996). The Situation: 9/11 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A more recent example was the 9/11 incident. The safety and protection that was a seal of American social order was devastated by the 9/11 aftermath. The American people who have gone through the bereavement of either of their parents, brothers, sisters, next of kin, or friends may well be putting up now with overpowering anguish. They will want all the emotional assistance they can obtain and they will need an extended recovery period. Life will never look the same again for any oblivious or sentient American people, but the young people who have upheld personal fatalities may need considerable support from qualified, compassionate specialists (Skene, 2001). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The world is not in the slightest peaceful, but at present, there is no security issue taking center stage and the situation in the 9/11 assault is no exception. The 9/11 event had impressed upon America a greater sense of threat at the advent of the new millennium. The 9/11 terrorist attacks incited terror, fury, grief, revulsion, fear, empathy, bewilderment, melancholy, retribution Ã¢â¬â sundry reactions in a nation that was everlastingly changed. To translate the mixed reaction of a private individual in a more politically relevant sense, it is wise to recall how then Senator Edward Livingston could be more important at these times with his words in a debate on the Alien and Sedition Acts: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we are absurd enough to call ourselves free and enlightened while we advocate principles that would have disgraced the age of Gothic barbarityÃ¢â¬ (Skene, 2001). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã They may well not entirely come to terms with the intangible theories thrashed out by counselors or on the television newscast but are prone to be directed in their thoughts by a distinct discernment of validity. They may have dealings with a diversity of sentiments and impressions, and their articulation may subsume mimicking or self-deleterious actions as a way of dealing with their retaliation, fury, and despondency. A number of children at this phase may demonstrate a reluctance to speak of their sentiments and thoughts (Dunn, 2001). The Psychology of Situation: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The emotional responses of posttraumatic stress can occur immediately following the disaster in an acute form and subside over a period of several months or can persist, becoming a chronic syndrome often called the residual stress pattern. In other cases, people may show no immediate reaction but may experience a full-blown posttraumatic stress disorder after a delay of months or even years. Clinicians are still discovering veterans of World War II and the Korean War who are displaying residual or delayed posttraumatic stress disorders (Hinkle, 2004). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This delayed posttraumatic stress syndrome has been a special problem in the case of Vietnam veterans. The problems of many seemed to be made worse by feelings that they had been rejected by an unsympathetic American public and that they had been betrayed by their government and had spent important years of their lives in a wasted effort (Bornstein, 1994). In a study of Vietnam veterans with combat experience, called the Ã¢â¬Å"Forgotten Warrior Project,Ã¢â¬ John Wilson, a psychologist at Cleveland State University found that (Kagan, 2004): Their suicide rate was 23 to 33 percent higher than the national average. Of those who had been married when they left the United States, 38 percent were divorced within six months after returning. The rate of hospitalization for alcoholism or drinking problems was high and increasing. About half of them still had some emotional problems related to adjustment of civilian life. Brian Seaward is one of the authors that delved into the realm of stress and its health consequences. Seaward notes that aside from the special life events that may be experienced by almost everyone, the most appreciable part of the list is the concept of change.Ã This implies that change may be in tandem with stress as being a natural part of modern-day living.Ã That change is the ultimate source of stress.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Change becomes a powerful stressor agent because it necessitates adaptation whether it is perceived as a negative or positive experienceÃ¢â¬ (Calkins, 1996). The important features of posttraumatic stress disorder, according to Seaward, are cognition and stress.Ã Stress affects cognition as anxiety intrudes on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness as demonstrated by his unstoppable pangs of emotion, excessive preoccupation with the threatening situation or person, startling reactions, and other unwanted sensations.Ã It may also impair memory and attention during cognitive tasks.Ã It may also enhance attention, principally regarding memories of the stressor but repetitive thoughts can perpetuate stress and make it chronic (Calkins, 1996). Seaward also enumerates the emotional signs of health hassle, which are among others, anxiety, irritability, increased aggression, lack of enthusiasm, depression, alienation, and low self-esteem. Indecision, impaired judgments, lack of concentration, lapses in memory, and absentmindedness are some cases of mental drawbacks caused by health troubles. Seaward also shows that there are individuals who are more prone to health troubles than others.Ã As a result, the ability to cope with poor health is not the same with everyone. For instance, effective coping with stress depends upon how people go about their day-to-day lives. Lifestyle is a key factor in determining the likelihood of an improved posttraumatic stress disorder (Calkins, 1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder is usually coupled with feelings of sadness, discouragement, and dissatisfaction and usually occurs with other symptoms, such as feelings of worthlessness or guilt, decreased energy, and suicidal thoughts. Just as one can have the flu and bladder infection at the same time, it is quite possible, especially in the milder forms of bipolar disorder, to be both abnormally depressed and anxious at the same time (Dunn, 2001). Survivors of extremely traumatic experiences such as 9/11 are sometimes left with special anxiety problems. Some act as if they have been by the shock of their ordeal. Their interest in life is diminished, and they feel alienated from the people around them. Others develop a tendency to remain constantly on the alert, as if disaster is sure to strike again at any moment. They tend also to startle easily. People who have lived through auto crashes may panic at the sound if cars in the night. Those who have endured a mugging or rape may respond with a start whenever they hear strange sounds, and some former prisoners o war and hostages report similar reactions whenever they hear approaching footsteps (Skene, 2001). Survivors of psychological trauma are likely also to keep reliving their experience. They suffer from nightmares in which the shattering episode is reenacted in all its terrifying detail, and by day they find themselves suddenly overwhelmed by harrowing memories whenever they are exposed to situations that even remotely resemble the original event (GarcÃ a, 2005). There is evidence also that mood disorders are related to disturbances in the brain, to such an extent that the symptoms sometimes appear without any provocation. Neither the depressed individual nor the close family and friends can point to any unusually stressful event that might have caused a depression (Dunn, 2001). The Responsive Behavior of the Young and the Old Posttraumatic stress reactions can occur at any age.Ã Some people get over the traumatic experience of 9/11 soon enough, but others are troubled by symptoms for years on end. A number of elderly concentration camp survivors broke down completely decades after their ordeal was over when they had to be hospitalized for medical reasons. The experience was sufficiently similar to imprisonment to reopen fully the old psychological wounds (GarcÃ a, 2005). Children endure with bereavement a lot in the vein of adults, but with still not as much of discernment (GarcÃ a, 2005). When taking children in hand, it is imperative to recognize that they almost certainly discern more than what parents grant them credit for. Despite the fact that parents inherently desire to safeguard their children from pain, even the youngest kid understands that something is dreadfully wrong and yearns to grasp why the every adult distraught and in tears. This protective attitude merely serves to deprive the child of a chance to learn more about grief management and coping skills, which are indispensable throughout a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, especially when he or she continues live in the absence of any parent who is supposed to shield them from deep sorrow since it is the parent or any close relative who has passed away (GarcÃ a, 2005). It is essential to acknowledge that every child is inimitable in his or her comprehension of the entire process of death. This discernment hinge on their developmental phase, intellectual skills, teachings by parents, teachers, and significant others, personality attributes, imagery in the media, spiritual convictions, and prior incidents of death induced by 9/11 (Hinkle, 2004). Nevertheless, there are a number of consequential factors that will be useful in comprehending how young people live through and cope with death and its aftermath (Dunn, 2001). Coping strategy of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioral and psychological efforts to buffer or minimize environmental and internal demands of posttraumatic stress disorder. Coping means that the person is Ã¢â¬Å"taking charge of his or her own life and is seeking the resources needed to solve current problemsÃ¢â¬ (GarcÃ a, 2005). Seaward furthers that although the coping strategies used by individuals are often distinct, coping temperaments are to a large extent acquired from the social environment. The manner in which people attempt to resolve stressful situations, the cognitive strategies that they use to downsize threat, and the techniques for handling tensions are largely gained from the groups to which they belong.Ã A person tries to contain the threat and beat stress in two ways, namely focusing on the problem and on the emotions (Bornstein, 1994). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Other grown-ups are overly wrapped up in their anguish to make an effort to comprehend how the firsthand witnesses of the 9/11 attacks fathom. Other people usually misconstrue the bystanderÃ¢â¬â¢s demonstration of sentiments, characteristically hold themselves responsible for their fellowmenÃ¢â¬â¢s lamentation or rage. Therefore, even though it is likely for the entire people to express their sorrow in the presence of the world, it is essential to impart an elucidation to the terrorist that they can face the future more stalwartly. Discovering how to communicate their anguish, resentment, and apprehension will help Americans to contend with comparable disasters if truly inevitable in the future (Skene, 2001). Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã No question about it; the 9/11 incident was the commencement of enlarged hostilities and vigilance as well. The imagery being broadcast was far too excruciating to behold. Mass terrorism is not a regular crime; it is an enormously terrible crime. Tens of thousands, more or less, are the terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ target to inflict fatality or fear upon, and they are more than determined to rule the world. With continued weak will, no wonder how more people would struggle to stay untreated with posttraumatic stress disorder (Skene, 2001). Attitudes toward those with posttraumatic stress disorder have improved over time. Today, individuals with PTSD are fortunate enough to be treated in hospitals and clinics instead of being out away in prisons or asylums. But they are still far from universally accepted either within the family or community. How they are viewed by others can be critical. It can help determine whether they will recover sufficiently to function in society, or to continue to be overwhelmed by their symptoms and even get worse (Calkins, 1996). For a person with posttraumatic stress disorder, there is no clear-cut organic problem, no violation of basic social norms, and no loss of orientation to reality, but the individual shows a lifelong pattern of self-defeating and inadequate coping strategies aimed more at reducing anxiety than at solving life problems. By mental aberrations or psychological scars, the PTSD patient proves to others that he or she is impotent in the face of a threatening world (Dunn, 2001). Our growing understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder does more than enable society to reclaim its familiar stranger. In making sense of posttraumatic stress disorder, we are forced to come to grips with basic conceptions of normality, reality, and social values. And mind loosed from its stable moorings does not just go on its solitary way; it bumps into other minds, sometimes changing their stability (Kagan, 2004). Many PSTD patients are privately treated at home, while others have learned to conceal their disturbances and not act crazy in public. Still others act out their mental problems in ways that society does not judge as mentally disordered; perhaps joining the hate groups, or engaging in socially acceptable forms of violence. Just as unemployment statistics do not include all those who are chronically unemployed and have stopped looking for work, so, too, statistics on posttraumatic stress disorder omit those who suffer in silence, living a marginal existence on the fringes of society (Hinkle, 2004). Indeed, victims of posttraumatic stress disorder caused by 9/11 are usually beset by extremely difficult psychological and social problems. They are likely to be financially strapped, not only because the therapy can be expensive, but also it interferes with productive work. They tend to be outcasts from both the family and society at large. Often the only persons willing to give them serious attention are their fellow PTSD patients, which do not really help as negativity enlarges (Bornstein, 1994). Under such depressive, circumstance, they need considerable help to break free from prejudiced society and get a fresh start in life. References Calkins, Mary Whiton. (1996). An Introduction to Psychology. The Macmillan Company. Bornstein, Marc H. (1994). Psychology and Its Allied Disciplines. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Dunn, Edgar S. (2001). Abnormal Psychology. Resources for the Future. GarcÃ a, Cynthia. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Developmental Psychology.Ã¢â¬ Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Hinkle, Gisela J. (2004). The Development of Modern Sociology: Its Nature and Growth in the United States. Random House. Kagan, Jerome. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology.Ã¢â¬ Developmental Psychology. Skene, Neil. (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Sacrificing Freedoms in the Name of Saving Them.Ã¢â¬ Atlanta: Creative Loafing.
Friday, November 8, 2019
D Caries essays Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth decay. It is a local disease, which is characterized by an irreversible and permanent destruction of the tooth hard tissue, enamel. Thus spreads the destruction to the rest of the tooth and, and possibly leading to tooth loss and possibly infections in other areas, more specifically through the maxillary or mandibular areas. Also I have included some other defects that are import and not only to the observation of caries but overall pathologies and their implications for the individuals affected. In this paper I will attempt to outline the causes of this disease and some of the numerous factors that cause it, as many have a hand in the process. Also I will show how these changes were brought about and how these affected the individuals with caries. To begin I will introduce the reader he to other defects that affect the same area and should be considered when any analysis of the area is to be understood. Any disturbance, such as severe infection can disrupt enamel formation. That disruption of enamel formation will leave an enduring record as a disorientation of enamel prisms. Because the human dental growth sequence is known, the age at which the enamel disturbance occurred can be determined from the location of the disturbance within the enamel. A standard chart for dental development can be consulted for this purpose. There is extensive literature (now in excess of 500 articles) on the epidemiology and etiology of enamel defects. Many of which have been...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Chapter 3 Product and Service Design 2 Essays Chapter 3 Product and Service Design 2 Essays Chapter 3 Product and Service Design Product Design The product-design process consists of designing products that perform required functions and satisfy customer requirements. The product-design process is highly developed because it is the focus of mechanical (and civil, aeronautical, and automotive) engineering. Most product designers hold degrees in mechanical engineering unless they are designing public infrastructure (civil engineering), automobiles (automotive engineering), or aircraft (aeronautical engineering). These engineering fields provide the theories that are applied in designing new products. There are also numerous computer-aided technologies available to aid the product-design process. The tools used in the product-design process include function analysis (also known as value engineering), computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), computer-aided process planning (CAPP), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and quality function deployment (QFD). Function Analysis In function analysis, the functions performed by products are expressed using a two-word verbal model consisting of a verb and a noun. For example, modern toasters use infrared radiation to toast bread. The most common way to create infrared radiation is to apply power to nichrome wire wrapped back and forth across a mica sheet. Thus, functions performed by a toaster include: Ã¢â¬Å"toast bread,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"create radiation,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"power nichrome.Ã¢â¬ The many functions performed by a product are organized using a function diagram. Moving from left to right, the functions explain how higher-level functions are performed. Moving from right to left, the functions explain why lower-level functions are performed: Function Diagram How? - -Why? Toast bread -Create radiation-Power nichrome Mechanical engineers (among others) are taught how to design products to perform required functions. Hence, the product-design process might begin by giving the designer the functions the product must perform. Function analysis can also be used as a means of fostering creativity and innovation. This is done by identifying the functions performed by an existing product and perhaps organizing some or all of them into a function diagram. The designer is then given only the functions (or function diagram) and is told to design a product that performs these functions. By abstracting the physical product using function analysis, the designer is freed to come up with entirely new ways of performing the required functions. Conversely, if a designer is given the existing physical product (such as a toaster), and told to design a new toaster, the result is likely to be only an incremental improvement. Function analysis was particularly popular during World War II when it was known as value engineering. Material shortages were commonplace during the war because most of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources were dedicated to the war effort. Consequently, engineers used value engineering to reduce product costs and resource requirements. The engineering or design problem was to perform required functions using less resources, and particularly fewer resources that were in short supply. Once World War II ended, and the material shortages were relieved, value engineering fell out of use. Its real benefit today is providing a very clever means of fostering design creativity and innovation. CAD, CAE, CAPP, CAM, and Rapid Prototyping Computer integrated manufacturing consists of computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), rapid prototyping, computer-aided process planning (CAPP), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Computer-aided design (CAD) is a three-dimensional computer drawing program used to draw new products. The product is drawn in three
Sunday, November 3, 2019
1 - Assignment Example Financial managers aid in efficient allocation of available resources, thus boosting the procurement function. The involvement allows the various departments to participate, leading to optimal decisions that benefit the organization. This method poses a threat of death on a supplier who fails to deliver the required consignment. Given that no one would want to die, a supplier had to ensure that the goods were delivered on time. Consequently, the method led to the constant and prompt delivery of goods, thus enhancing operations in Sweden. On the other hand, the crude method caused suppliers to fear for their lives, which does not promote good relations in business. Non-performance in modern day can be handled in ways that are more sophisticated. Examples include the cancellation of supplier contracts, and awarding them to other suppliers who can manage to deliver. The skill of negotiation serves a critical role in the field of purchasing. It allows the buyer to bargain for a favorable and lower price, compared to the price being offered by the seller. Therefore, negotiation enables organizations to acquire quality products at considerable prices, which help in reducing costs. Communication also plays a critical role in procurement. It ensures that orders are placed in the right way, and in the right quantities. The skill, further, allows the company to trace the goods, thus ensuring their timely delivery. This leads to customer satisfaction as they acquire goods when and where there need them, without inconveniences. Computer proficiency promotes the ability of an organization to compete successfully in the market, through adoption of technologies that promote the efficiency of an organization. Technological advancements allow a public organization to improve the efficiency of procurement by reducing the costs associated with the process. E-procurement, for example, leads to the employment of a few employees, thus saving on expenses. More to
Friday, November 1, 2019
Machiavelli's and Plato's political thoughts - Essay Example But what does the science of running the state imply? Lots of people ruminated about this question. Plato started from the fact that there is an ideal state, a perfect specimen, and its multiple repetitions are simple distortion in the real world of things. In Plato's view, expressed in his treatise Ã¢â¬Å"The RepublicÃ¢â¬ , the main basis of any ideal state is justice. Plato argues that every citizen is given a special class, the most suitable to his or her nature, i.e. justice is correspondence of a real thing with its idea; the state is ideal, when each citizen acts in accord with his own essence. Since there are individual differences between people, Plato proposes the division of society into several estates: the philosophers - the rulers, warriors Ã¢â¬â the guardians and craftsmen Ã¢â¬â manufacturers (Pangle, 1980). The ideal system is when every citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests are identical with the public ones, when personality does not claim for individual self-worth and complete autonomy in actions. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s state and civil society are represented in a single, homogenous, holistic, undifferentiated concept. Plato points out the following forms of government: the royal regime (monarchy), the aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. The most right and reasonable, he believes, is aristocracy. Other forms of government are consistent deviations from the ideal state. Aristocracy is a rule of the best, approved by the people. The person, who is reputed to be brave and wise, should have power and rule the state. The basis of this form of government is equality by birth. In Plato's view, a real governor should not seek for power; he is not willing to rule the country and corrects the vices of other people (Kochin, 2002). People, guided by ambition, fame and money are not suitable for this role. The dialogue "Laws" is the last work of Plato. Estate division of citizens is replaced with gradation of property qualification. Along with t he recognition of slavery Plato demonstrates his disdainful attitude towards productive work. Ideal state structure, by Plato, is combining of democracy and monarchy (Pangle, 1980). The thinker of the Renaissance Niccolo Machiavelli expressed his own opinion on state structure and described an ideal state governor. In modern history, Machiavelli was the first thinker, who began talking about the economy of the state as an integral part of its prosperity. Summing up the historical experience, Machiavelli observes that those rulers, who sought to be generous, spent all their wealth and savings on support the glory of generous rulers. Thus, generosity ruins sovereignÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and country, causes the resentment of many. Thus, Machiavelli was accused of cruelty. However, such accusations are groundless. After all, Machiavelli never wrote that a good ruler should always apply fierce measures. On the contrary, he warned that the new sovereign should not be gullible, suspicious an d quick to slaughter (Baron, 1961). He should be restrained, cautious and kind, so that excessive credulity not to turn into recklessness and excessive distrust not to embittered citizens (Machiavelli, 1998). In contrast to Plato, who in his early works advocated for equality and justice, in income distribution, in particular, Machiavelli saw
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The difference between alternative and conventional medicine - Thesis Example It is very interesting to know that the number of individuals who visit alternative therapies is already higher than those individuals who visit the Western-based physicians. (Eisenberg et al., 1998) Even though some people make use of CAM as a substitute for a conventional medicine (Druss & Rosenheck, 1999), several studies believe that the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) could complement the use of a conventional medicine (Egede et al., 2002; Druss & Rosenheck, 1999). In line with the use of CAM, there are also several studies suggesting that the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of CAM is a major factor that makes some people avoids the use of conventional medicine (Robinson et al., 2002; Astin, 1998). Despite the significant increase in the use of CAM, there are still many people who remain unclear with regards to the differences between alternative and conventional medicine. To enable the readers have a better understanding with regards to the differences between the two types of medicine, the definition of alternative and conventional medicine will first be provided followed by discussing some general information about the use of CAM and conventional medicine. This study will gather some past and present academic literature that discusses and differentiate alternative medicine from a conventional medicine. After discussing the major factors behind the shift from conventional medicine to the use of CAM, the effectiveness between CAM and conventional medicine will be compared and contrast. As part of the conclusion, whether or not alternative medicine is better than a conventional medicine will be justified. Alternative medicine is Ã¢â¬Å"a form of healing arts that is not taught in a traditional Western medical schools that could promote options to the use of conventional medicineÃ¢â¬ (MedicineNet.com, 2007). It is basically Ã¢â¬Å"a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not currently considered
Monday, October 28, 2019
History of the Beer Growler Essay Introduction I. Attention-getter: Does anyone know what the term Growler means and how it relates to beer? (merriam-webster. com) A container for beer bought by the measure (can, pitcher, bottle, etc) II. Thesis statement: Beer is drank everyday in the United States, without a single consideration of the vessels they come in or how they came to be. III. Preview of Main Points: Today were going to discuss, when the growler first emerged, how it got its name, and the common day growler. Transition: Starting with my first point, when growlers first appeared. 1. The first growlers are believed to have emerged in the mid 1800s. A. The consumer wanted to drink beer at home, and during lunch breaks at work. B. They were the only way to have beer outside of the saloon or local tavern C. Growlers varied from glass, to pottery, to the most popular being a 2qt galvanized pail with lid. D. (focusonthebeer. com) they were sold as a pint, and filled 1/2 beer, and 1/2 foam. . Transition: Now that we have discussed when they emerged, lets talk about how they got their name. 2. The term growler is actually up for some debate. A. Some believe it was sound of CO2 escaping from the lid of the pail. B. Others believe it was rumbling of the stomachs of workers waiting to have beer during lunch. C. (bottles. net) Many also believe it was conflict between the bartender, and the customer. The customer was growling about not having a full pail, and the bartender was growling about only having to charge for a pint. Transition: Lastly we are going to discuss the common day growler. 3. It wasnt until 1989 when it emerged again, in what we are familiar with today in terms of the growler A. (beeradvocate. com) In 1989 Charlie Otto is being credited for what we see in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s growler B. (grandtetonbrewing. com) formerly Otto brothers brewing company Otto wanted to allow his customers to take beer home and enjoy it. C. After discussing this with his father, his father told him he needs a growler, which his father remembers getting filled for his father. D. Common day growler is a glass jug with a small handle. Often times with the Brewery label silk screened on the bottle Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: Today we have went over when the growler emerged, how it got its name, and the common day growler. B. Residual message: Today the growler is particularly popular with the craft beer breweries; it is believed to have stopped over 1 billion bottles, and cans going into the trash each year. References: Source 1 Merriam-Webster, 2013. Definition of the word Growler. Available from Merriam-Webster via internet (http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/growler). Source 2 IGrind, November 12, 2011. The Growler: Part 1 The Past. Available via the internet (http://www. focusonthebeer. com/2011/11/growler-part-1-past. html) Source 3 Jess Kidden, 2013. History of the Growler Available via the internet (http://www. bottless. net/The_History_of_The_Beer_Growler_s/605. htm) Source 4 BeerAdvocate, July 31, 2002. The Growler: Beer-to-Go! Available via the internet (http://beeradvocate. com/articles/384) Source 5 Grand Teton Brewing, Growler History. Available via the internet (http://www. grandtetonbrewing. com/Growlers. html).
Saturday, October 26, 2019
The Search for Truth in Plato's Allegory of the Cave and AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Winesburg, OhioÃ Ã Ã The novel Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson has many themes that present themselves throughout the book. One such recurring theme is a search for truth. The characters in the book do not fully realize that they are searching for truth, but they do feel a vague, "indescribable thing" that pushes and prods their minds to actualize a higher plane of thought. This search for a higher plane by the characters of Winesburg nearly parallels another literary work of ancient Greek origin- Plato's "Allegory of the Cave," which is a portion of his famous writing "The Republic." I contend that the town of Winesburg is the equivalent of the Cave in Plato's writing. The "Allegory of the Cave" is an attempt by Plato to relate his thoughts and philosophy on human civilization into common terms. He believed that there are two planes of existence: the material world of the senses, and a higher world of thoughts and ideals. Plato's "Allegory" made it possible for people to more firmly grasp a somewhat abstract concept. The "Allegory" depicts a number of people who are imprisoned in a cave, chained by the legs and neck so that they cannot move, nor can they turn their heads; they see only towards the back wall opposite the cave opening. These people have been chained in this manner their entire lives. Sometimes objects and people pass in front of the cave opening, and shadows play upon the back wall. Since the people have only seen the shadows, they assume that the shadows are the real objects and beings of the world. They watch the shadows, measuring them, trying to understand them, and soon honors are bestowed upon those persons who can see the... ...ld (the cave) leads to qualities which are the antithesis of goodness, namely hatred. I believe that drawing parallels between Winesburg, Ohio and the "Allegory of the Cave" helps provide insight into how the human race has wrestled with the problem of finding ways to act upon the higher ideals that reside in the character of mankind. Perhaps realizing that Man has contemplated this problem for thousands upon thousands of years, from the time of the ancient Greeks through the early twentieth century to the present, can assist human civilization to see the higher plane of existence, which Plato says is the "author of all things beautiful and right." Works Cited: Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. New York, NY: Penguin Books Ltd., 1993. Plato. Allegory of the Cave. in The Norton Reader. Linda H. Peterson et al., eds. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
?Like most people, I had the urge to grow up quickly. Despite the constant Ã¢â¬Å"they grow up so fastÃ¢â¬ from relatives, it was not fast enough for me. I used to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until I grow up,Ã¢â¬ usually when I was frustrated with my momÃ¢â¬â¢s strict rules. I fantasized about living a posh life, walking under the warm sun wearing designer shades with my athletic boyfriend before stopping at a restaurant and drinking expensive wines without my mom nagging me. My fantasy would abruptly end when my mom shattered my thoughts by reminding me that it was getting late and I had not yet started my homework. Sigh. Through my own experiencesÃ¢â¬âwearing excessive makeup to make myself appear older and dating older guysÃ¢â¬âand enlightenment, my views of being an adult have changed. Adulthood is something that will occur whether we are ready or not. College is a big leap that forces people into that transition from childhood to the beginning of adult life, especially if you are going to be living on campus. In college, I will have to cook and clean and care for myself. I will no longer have my mom telling me to avoid certain people, not to procrastinate and to make the right decisions. However, I will be able to keep the advice my mom has instilled in me so far, even when we are apart, although it may be hard to do so with the partying and alcohol and stress of college. Legally, being an adult could mean being 18, yet there is no way that minute that distinguishes someone from being 17 on one day and 18 the next can determine their adulthood. Being an adult comes gradually as people take responsibilities for their actions, take care of priorities and look out for themselves with limited support of others. Adulthood is not determined by age or ability to bear children or being physically developed. I know people older than 18 who have not yet obtained these traits and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen many teen moms dependent on their parents to support the baby. I will be an adult when I am able to make the right decisions determined by my morals that I have acquired over my years, when I understand the repercussions of my actions, when I am self-sufficient or accept limited help from parents or friends, and when I care not only for myself but others. The closer I get the more frightened I become. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢m in no rush to become an adult. I will take advantage of my momÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance and housing and rules for as long as I can. I will enjoy the moment I am in and embrace my life when I am an adult. What does make you a grown-up? Is it moving out of the house? Hitting a certain age? Having a relationship? Getting a job? How is it that we can do those things, that we consider to be Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ , but we still feel like kids? Or that we feel like grown-ups, weÃ¢â¬â¢re certainly old enough, but we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seemed to have accomplished any of those things Ã¢â¬Å"grown-upsÃ¢â¬ have done? For me being an adult is a compilation of various features and components and is more or less a personal achievement. There is no exact pattern of becoming an adult as every single person has their own way of improvement. But you always have to make that first step that draws the beginning of your self-improving. There are a number of abilities I believe you have to acomplish in order to even begin to get closer to being an adult. The ability of making reasonable decisions for yourself and people around you, being able to take responsibility for your actions, able to make the most of what you have and try to improve yourself in any possible way. Becoming an adult is a journey everyone should make at a certain moment in order to become the most they can be, to grow as an individual Ã¢â¬â mentaly and spiritually. Many people find it rather difficult and theyÃ¢â¬ ¦ [continues] There is no clear determinant for determining when a person becomes an adult, Some say itÃ¢â¬â¢s when you turn eighteen others say itÃ¢â¬â¢s when you get your drivers license. One thing is for sure though to become an adult you must be mature and ready to take on the world. Being an adult means achieving a separate identity, being able to support your self and/or your family financially, and being able to provide yourself with a house or a place to call home. Adulthood consists of many different aspects, and is not an easy part of life. To become an adult you must achieve a separate identity. Erik Erickson a Austrian psychologist defined identity as Ã¢â¬Å"a sense of self part from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Ã¢â¬ This means to be an adult you must become independent so that you will be provided the opportunity to learn and take responsibility for your own lives. Young adults need to know who they are in order to be self-dependent, they also need to know their strengths and weaknesses, and the values they consider to be important to them. People never seem to quite understand the meaning of being an Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ . I myself am not very sure of the full meaning of it. It has always seemed to me that age is irrelevant. You can be 12 and understand things better than a 30-year-old or you can be 40, have two PhDÃ¢â¬â¢s and still wonder if pigeons are migratory birds. Many people my age think that getting out of their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house is an act of maturity but how does changing your situation prove that you are an Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ ? If they run away from home it is more likely to lose themselves trying to cope alone and underprepared with the difficulties in life. To become an adult you must achieve a separate identity. Still everyone perceives the world and every thought in it through their own consciousness. Adulthood: Meaning of Life and Adult Essay ?Like most people, I had the urge to grow up quickly. Despite the constant Ã¢â¬Å"they grow up so fastÃ¢â¬ from relatives, it was not fast enough for me. I used to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until I grow up,Ã¢â¬ usually when I was frustrated with my momÃ¢â¬â¢s strict rules. I fantasized about living a posh life, walking under the warm sun wearing designer shades with my athletic boyfriend before stopping at a restaurant and drinking expensive wines without my mom nagging me. My fantasy would abruptly end when my mom shattered my thoughts by reminding me that it was getting late and I had not yet started my homework. Sigh. Through my own experiencesÃ¢â¬âwearing excessive makeup to make myself appear older and dating older guysÃ¢â¬âand enlightenment, my views of being an adult have changed. Adulthood is something that will occur whether we are ready or not. College is a big leap that forces people into that transition from childhood to the beginning of adult life, especially if you are going to be living on campus. In college, I will have to cook and clean and care for myself. I will no longer have my mom telling me to avoid certain people, not to procrastinate and to make the right decisions. However, I will be able to keep the advice my mom has instilled in me so far, even when we are apart, although it may be hard to do so with the partying and alcohol and stress of college. Legally, being an adult could mean being 18, yet there is no way that minute that distinguishes someone from being 17 on one day and 18 the next can determine their adulthood. Being an adult comes gradually as people take responsibilities for their actions, take care of priorities and look out for themselves with limited support of others. Adulthood is not determined by age or ability to bear children or being physically developed. I know people older than 18 who have not yet obtained these traits and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen many teen moms dependent on their parents to support the baby. I will be an adult when I am able to make the right decisions determined by my morals that I have acquired over my years, when I understand the repercussions of my actions, when I am self-sufficient or accept limited help from parents or friends, and when I care not only for myself but others. The closer I get the more frightened I become. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢m in no rush to become an adult. I will take advantage of my momÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance and housing and rules for as long as I can. I will enjoy the moment I am in and embrace my life when I am an adult. What does make you a grown-up? Is it moving out of the house? Hitting a certain age? Having a relationship? Getting a job? How is it that we can do those things, that we consider to be Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ , but we still feel like kids? Or that we feel like grown-ups, weÃ¢â¬â¢re certainly old enough, but we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seemed to have accomplished any of those things Ã¢â¬Å"grown-upsÃ¢â¬ have done? For me being an adult is a compilation of various features and components and is more or less a personal achievement. There is no exact pattern of becoming an adult as every single person has their own way of improvement. But you always have to make that first step that draws the beginning of your self-improving. There are a number of abilities I believe you have to acomplish in order to even begin to get closer to being an adult. The ability of making reasonable decisions for yourself and people around you, being able to take responsibility for your actions, able to make the most of what you have and try to improve yourself in any possible way. Becoming an adult is a journey everyone should make at a certain moment in order to become the most they can be, to grow as an individual Ã¢â¬â mentaly and spiritually. Many people find it rather difficult and theyÃ¢â¬ ¦ [continues] There is no clear determinant for determining when a person becomes an adult, Some say itÃ¢â¬â¢s when you turn eighteen others say itÃ¢â¬â¢s when you get your drivers license. One thing is for sure though to become an adult you must be mature and ready to take on the world. Being an adult means achieving a separate identity, being able to support your self and/or your family financially, and being able to provide yourself with a house or a place to call home. Adulthood consists of many different aspects, and is not an easy part of life. To become an adult you must achieve a separate identity. Erik Erickson a Austrian psychologist defined identity as Ã¢â¬Å"a sense of self part from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Ã¢â¬ This means to be an adult you must become independent so that you will be provided the opportunity to learn and take responsibility for your own lives. Young adults need to know who they are in order to be self-dependent, they also need to know their strengths and weaknesses, and the values they consider to be important to them. People never seem to quite understand the meaning of being an Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ . I myself am not very sure of the full meaning of it. It has always seemed to me that age is irrelevant. You can be 12 and understand things better than a 30-year-old or you can be 40, have two PhDÃ¢â¬â¢s and still wonder if pigeons are migratory birds. Many people my age think that getting out of their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house is an act of maturity but how does changing your situation prove that you are an Ã¢â¬Å"adultÃ¢â¬ ? If they run away from home it is more likely to lose themselves trying to cope alone and underprepared with the difficulties in life. To become an adult you must achieve a separate identity. Still everyone perceives the world and every thought in it through their own consciousness.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Organizational Diagnosis Are companies at the competitive edge problem free? Do any organizations work flawlessly? Not in the real world. How do the winners overcome their problems? What distinguishes them from other companies? How do they survive while others flounder or fall? Like other organizations, winning companies often reach for easy-answers and quick fixes. But if these short-cut responses miss their mark, winners keep searching for solid solutions. They delve more deeply into the situation, ultimately uncovering the root cause. Top performers distinguish themselves by the way they tackle organizational problems by using organizational diagnosis to make positive changes for the future of their business (Long Term Success through Deep Organizational Diagnosis, 2007). Data collection: The purpose of a diagnosis is to identify problems facing the organization and to determine their causes so that management can plan solutions. The first step in diagnosing an organization is to determine what/where the problem is by using data collection. It is very important to acknowledge that there is a problem and it needs solving more on a long term basis in order to keep the future of the organization prospering. The collection of data should begin in areas in which management believes the problems exist. After the data is collected, leaders can more easily identify where the issues lie and begin to resolve them (Beer and Spector, 1993). Data collection can be done by doing a systematic analysis where McKinseyÃ¢â¬â¢s 7-S framework can be applied. The change agent at this point strategically analyzes and formulates diagnosis questions. The elements of the strategy are as follows with examples of typical questions that decision makers will need to answer in their quest for change (Business Diagnostic Questions Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Seven SÃ¢â¬ Model Framework, 2007). Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition. Ã¢â¬ ¢What are the main strategies in moving this organization to being more successful? Ã¢â¬ ¢What are the key short-term goals to achieve these strategies? Structure: the way the organization is structured and who reports to whom. Ã¢â¬ ¢Describe the roles of the main departments. What kinds of role/turf issues occur between departments? Ã¢â¬ ¢What kinds of communications issues occur between departments? Ã¢â¬ ¢What key things are done in the organization to help integrate various functions and departments that are interdependent? Ã¢â¬ ¢How does the structure help/hinder this organization in accomplishing its strategy? What is being done about this now? Syst ems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done. Ã¢â¬ ¢What are the 5 most important system problems that if solved or improved would significantly improve profitability or organizational effectiveness? Why? What are you doing about these issues now? Style: the style of leadership adopted. Ã¢â¬ ¢How are important decisions made in this organization? Ã¢â¬ ¢How does top management communicate with key staff? How does it communicate with the labor force? Ã¢â¬ ¢What are the key expectations for how your key people and labor force should behave? Ã¢â¬ ¢How would you describe the organization's style of management? How would others differ in their assessment of that style? Skills: the actual skills and competencies of the employees working for the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢What key knowledge and skills are needed to succeed in this business/organization? Why? How is that expected to change over time? Ã¢â¬ ¢How would you assess the organization's curren t strengths and weaknesses against the needed knowledge and skills? Ã¢â¬ ¢What challenges does the organization face in strengthening or maintaining this match between knowledge and skills needed now and in the future? Ã¢â¬ ¢What is the organization doing about these issues now? Staff: the employees and their general capabilities Ã¢â¬ ¢Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the organization's key people. Ã¢â¬ ¢Describe their most important roles in the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢Who of these are most important to the success of the business/organization? Why? Ã¢â¬ ¢What are you most concerned about regarding the quality of the key staff? Why? Ã¢â¬ ¢Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the organization's labor force. Ã¢â¬ ¢What are you most concerned about regarding the quality of the organization's labor force? Ã¢â¬ ¢What is being done about this now? Shared Values: called Ã¢â¬Å"superordinate goalsÃ¢â¬ when the model was first developed, these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethic. Ã¢â¬ ¢If the business/organization were operating almost perfectly, describe the key things that would be happening? If I were invisible and walked through the organization, what would I see that contributed to this success? Ã¢â¬ ¢If I were invisible and could sit in on a number of conversations between the top 10 people and their staff, what themes would I hear? Ã¢â¬ ¢If this organization were wildly successful, where would it be in 10 years? Ã¢â¬ ¢If you were thinking of selling this successful business/organization, how would you want to be able to describe it to prospective buyers? Ã¢â¬ ¢How would you describe the mission of this company to your prospective buyers OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness for change: Once management admits that there are problems that need to be resolved, and then comes the question of whether the organization is ready to change. Organizational readiness is a state of preparedness which includes the psychological and behavioral aspects for change. This requires having the necessary knowledge, skills, resources, and support. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness for change will determine its ability to attend to environmental signals for change as well as its willingness to listen to internal voices saying that change is needed (Cawsey, Deszca p. 101). It is important for senior management to address the likelihood of change and communicate it effectively with the rest of the organization. Employees are more apt to support change if they are ready to make changes. This means they believe in the changes, have the time and energy to invest in the changes, and the organization is ready to support the changes. More important, the greater the complexity of the implementation task, the great the importance or organizational readiness for change. Creating awareness for change: Change leaders can create awareness of the need for change in several ways. The first method involves making the organization aware that it is in or near a crisis or creating a crisis that needs to be solved (Cawsey, Deszca p. 104). Most people will welcome the change more easily if they know that their future is in jeopardy if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the change. A second approach to enhancing the need for change is by identifying a transformational vision. Transformational visions tap into our needs to go beyond ourselves, to make a contribution, to do something worthwhile and meaningful, and to serve a greater good (Cawsey, Deszca p. 105). This type of awareness mechanism has the potential to gain positive feedback and negative feedback. People who support it are those individuals who are interested in making things better than they are. The people who oppose it simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t find it realistic and believe the change agent is proposing the change for their own benefit. A third approach to the enhancement of the need for change is through transformational leadership. This type of change makes the most sense to people because it is the leaders of the organization who makes all the decisions. If something is not going well, the leaders are the first to blame. It is important to note that when using any of the three approaches, the change agent needs to be well prepared when entering any type of discussion dialogue about the change. The people in the organization need to trust the change agent and believe in the proposed change therefore, the change agent should have all the right skills to get their point across to the people involved. Vision for change: When the organization is ready to make a change, it is very important for the change agent to provide a clear and detailed vision of the change. Vision is about action. Vision can empower both leaders and followers to implement change (Vision and the Management of Change, 2008). Change leaders use change visions to create and advance the mental picture they have of the future and to provide directional guidance for others that they need to enlist in the enterprise (Cawsey, Deszca p. 110). Vision can provide both a corporate sense of being and a sense of enduring purpose. Without a sensible vision, change efforts can dissolve into a list of confusing projects that take the organization in the wrong direction. It is important that the vision be easy to communicate. Once an effective change vision is in place, the change agent can begin to expand discussions to a broader audience or organizational members, paying careful attention to their reactions, suggestions, and alternatives (Vision and the Management of Change, 2008). It is also vital for the change agent to be aware that some people in the organization will understand the vision and want to help transform the organization, but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t. The change agent must remove blocks to change, call for new behaviors consistent with the vision, and most importantly, visibly reward the new behaviors (Vision and the Management of Change, 2008). Approval for change: Once the vision for change is in place, the change agent needs to find the best way of winning the approval for the change project. When outlining all the elements of the change project, the change agent needs to pay careful attention to managing scope. Allowing the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s scope to change mid-course usually means added costs, greater risks and longer duration. Many projects fail due to poor scope management (Scope and Change Control, 2005). A successful change agent understands that rigorous scope control is essential to deliver projects on time and on budget. The scope of the project should be clearly defined both in terms of its deliverables and in terms of how it will operate. This scope definition will form the baseline against which potential changes are assessed and against which the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is measured. In the definition, the change agent should also include factors that could lead to scope change. If possible risks exist; they should be identified in the definition because this will make the decision-makers more likely to allow changes if it became necessary and it will save costs in the long run (Scope and Change Control, 2005). Feedback: The final step for the change agent is to be open to continuous feedback. Change does not come easily to everyone in the organization. The change agent needs to be aware of all the criticism and concerns of the people involved in the change in order to keep people motivated and keep the business running in a positive matter. Employee involvement is a necessary and integral part of managing change. Managing change is not a one way street. Feedback from employees is a key element of the change management process. Analysis and corrective action based on this feedback provides a robust cycle for implementing change (Change Management, 2006). Feedback also allows the change agent to stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the next project. Conclusion: An organizational diagnosis can be a valuable and revealing process, if properly approached, and if an organization is willing to take full advantage of it. Ultimately, what youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to accomplish with an organizational diagnosis is a performance check on each of all the moving pieces (Grossman, 2009). During this check, for instance, you will want to examine those pieces that serve to help create the culture of the business and help drive things forward. Therefore, the key thing with organizational diagnosis is to help utilize a change effort that will benefit the health of the company as a whole and help it maintain its competitive advantage. The overall goal of an organizational diagnosis is to apply what should be happening within the organization, so that the effect is improved business performance overall. References: Beer, M. & Spector, B. (1993, July/August). Organizational diagnosis: its role in organizational learning. Journal of Counseling and Development. 71(6) 642-650. Retrieved from the City University Student Website. Cawsey, T. , & Deszca, G. (2007). Toolkit for organizational change. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Grossman, David. (2009). The Genesis of an Organizational Diagnosis: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s All about Improving Performance. Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from: http://www. hrtools. com/insights/david_grossman/the_genesis_of_an_organizational_diagnosis_its_all_about_imp roving_performance. aspx Business Diagnostic Questions. (2007). Seven S Model Framwork. Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from: http://www. change-management. net/7smodel. htm Change management Ã¢â¬â The systems and tools for managing change. 2006). Retrieved on February 20,2010 from: http://www. change-management. com/tutorial-change-process-detailed. htm Long Term Success through Deep Organizational Diagnosis (2007). Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from: http://www. hrconsultant. com/aw/aw_ter_long_term_success. html#top Scope & Change Control (2005). Retrieved on February 18, 2010 from: http://www. epmbook. com/scope. h tm Vision and the Management of Change. (2008). Retrieved on February 18, 2010 from: http://www. au. af. mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch19. html Organizational Diagnosis Organizational diagnosis is the process of analyzing a company, recognizing what problems the company may have, what strengths the company exhibits, the employees receptiveness to change and how to restructure and implement change to correct any problems. This is done to keep the company from losing money, possibly going under and also to keep the company competitive in a highly competitive marketplace. The process of an organizational diagnosis is generally performed in a few stages. First, the parent company employees a group of external consultants and researchers to visit the company.The researchers will usually begin their work with a reconnaissance stage. The consultants will spend some time at the organization getting to know the workers and gaining an initial impression of the company and how it operates. This is done by simply spending time talking with employees, observing day to day behavior and speaking with management. Following the initial research, the consultants will meet with the organizational clients to develop a written plan of expectations and goals that the organization is wishing to achieve.Generally, companies will hire the consulting firms because they have a problem or series of problems that they need to correct and are unsure of the best way to implement the change successfully. Consultants are a group of skilled workers that are highly educated in management, human psychology, sociology and organizational behavior. Sometimes it is best to hire a non- biased group of consultants that can observe the company from an external perspective in order to find the best course of action to resolve the problems at hand.Once the client and consultants have agreed upon a plan of action, the consultants will begin a more in-depth research stage. During this time, consultants will meet with important members of the organization to examine their feelings on change and their perspectives on the consulting project, as well as the proposed change. Co nsultants may also unobtrusively observe day-to-day tasks among workers and evaluate their communication skills, as well as their interactions.This will help the researchers develop an understanding of the companies interpersonal and power relations. The conducting of surveys and questionnaires is also a means of gathering information from workers on their stances and viewpoints of the corporation and their thoughts on purposing a change. Researchers will begin a thorough examination of important documents pertaining to the company. These documents can help researchers analyze the organizations strengths and weaknesses, as well as goals and company history.During the examination and researching process, consultants will quickly learn how important members of the organization are willing to accept and enforce a change. If members of the organization are unwilling to enforce and follow through with change, the consultants will need to restructure their goals and means of achieving the se. This prevents setting goals that are unattainable. If an organization is going to resist change, there is no need to spend the time to develop a plan to correct problems.This realization of the companies inability to accept and implement change will result in a separate set of issues that will need to be corrected. Generally, these types of resistance to change are going to be resolved by a change in personnel and the working staff. This process is designed to prevent setting a plan of attack that will fail, causing the organization to become frustrated when the change is not working, thus setting them further into a hole that they need to dig their way out of.Once the consultants have spent an adequate amount of time learning about the company and brainstorming ways to successfully implement change, they will develop specific methods of change implementation designed specifically for this particular organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. These can include specialized training programs, team building projects, job task re-designation, supervisory structure change, changing reward systems and goal achievement programs; just to name a few.Upon meeting with the company to present their final planned list of changes, as well as the implementation plans, the consultants will observe the company for a few weeks as they begin the process of correcting their issues. The consultants will be on hand to answer any questions that the company may have, as well as assist in solving any problems or roadblocks that the clients may run into. During this time, the researchers are basically a technical support hotline for the customer. They will be on site to help in any way possible.After a short trial period of change implementation, the customer and the consultants will form a meeting to analyze the effectiveness of the changes that are being carried out. This is a time that is used to fine-tune any processes or bring new ideas to the table to further improve on the companies ref ormation campaign. Following a predetermined length of time, as well as confidentiality in the companies ability to further carry out the scope of the change campaign, the consultants will vacate the premises. The consultants are available to call and discuss problems and/or ideas to continually improve upon the preconceived plan.In the months and years following the campaign, the company will further evaluate the effectiveness of the changes that were put in place. The company will either decide that the change process was a success, or they will decide that it needs further work. At this time, it may be in the companies best interest to hire a different consultation firm in order to correct the companies problems. It may be possible that the company will come to realize that there are other problems at play in the corporation that need to be analyzed and corrected.All of the sources that I have examined and researched, tend to follow the same ideals when it comes to organizational diagnosis and cultural evaluation. A few sources will change the names of the stages, but in effect, they are the exact same processes. Organizational diagnosis is a lot like troubleshooting a problem with any mechanical system. One must recognize the problem, find the source/s of the problem and develop a plan to correct or repair the problem. Unfortunately, when you are dealing with people, instead of mechanical objects, there are a lot more variables as well as unforeseeable pitfalls.In order to combat the instability of a dynamic corporation, executives, managers and even hourly employees must remain dynamic and receptive to a continually changing atmosphere. A company that tends to stay closed-minded and unreceptive to improvement is generally a short-lived company that will quickly be outdone by a continually changing marketplace. The global marketplace is a highly dynamic and competitive arena. In order for one to stay on top, you must be willing to continually one-up your c ompetitors. Organizational Diagnosis Organizational diagnosis is the process of analyzing a company, recognizing what problems the company may have, what strengths the company exhibits, the employees receptiveness to change and how to restructure and implement change to correct any problems. This is done to keep the company from losing money, possibly going under and also to keep the company competitive in a highly competitive marketplace. The process of an organizational diagnosis is generally performed in a few stages. First, the parent company employees a group of external consultants and researchers to visit the company.The researchers will usually begin their work with a reconnaissance stage. The consultants will spend some time at the organization getting to know the workers and gaining an initial impression of the company and how it operates. This is done by simply spending time talking with employees, observing day to day behavior and speaking with management. Following the initial research, the consultants will meet with the organizational clients to develop a written plan of expectations and goals that the organization is wishing to achieve.Generally, companies will hire the consulting firms because they have a problem or series of problems that they need to correct and are unsure of the best way to implement the change successfully. Consultants are a group of skilled workers that are highly educated in management, human psychology, sociology and organizational behavior. Sometimes it is best to hire a non- biased group of consultants that can observe the company from an external perspective in order to find the best course of action to resolve the problems at hand.Once the client and consultants have agreed upon a plan of action, the consultants will begin a more in-depth research stage. During this time, consultants will meet with important members of the organization to examine their feelings on change and their perspectives on the consulting project, as well as the proposed change. Co nsultants may also unobtrusively observe day-to-day tasks among workers and evaluate their communication skills, as well as their interactions.This will help the researchers develop an understanding of the companies interpersonal and power relations. The conducting of surveys and questionnaires is also a means of gathering information from workers on their stances and viewpoints of the corporation and their thoughts on purposing a change. Researchers will begin a thorough examination of important documents pertaining to the company. These documents can help researchers analyze the organizations strengths and weaknesses, as well as goals and company history.During the examination and researching process, consultants will quickly learn how important members of the organization are willing to accept and enforce a change. If members of the organization are unwilling to enforce and follow through with change, the consultants will need to restructure their goals and means of achieving the se. This prevents setting goals that are unattainable. If an organization is going to resist change, there is no need to spend the time to develop a plan to correct problems.This realization of the companies inability to accept and implement change will result in a separate set of issues that will need to be corrected. Generally, these types of resistance to change are going to be resolved by a change in personnel and the working staff. This process is designed to prevent setting a plan of attack that will fail, causing the organization to become frustrated when the change is not working, thus setting them further into a hole that they need to dig their way out of.Once the consultants have spent an adequate amount of time learning about the company and brainstorming ways to successfully implement change, they will develop specific methods of change implementation designed specifically for this particular organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. These can include specialized training programs, team building projects, job task re-designation, supervisory structure change, changing reward systems and goal achievement programs; just to name a few.Upon meeting with the company to present their final planned list of changes, as well as the implementation plans, the consultants will observe the company for a few weeks as they begin the process of correcting their issues. The consultants will be on hand to answer any questions that the company may have, as well as assist in solving any problems or roadblocks that the clients may run into. During this time, the researchers are basically a technical support hotline for the customer. They will be on site to help in any way possible.After a short trial period of change implementation, the customer and the consultants will form a meeting to analyze the effectiveness of the changes that are being carried out. This is a time that is used to fine-tune any processes or bring new ideas to the table to further improve on the companies ref ormation campaign. Following a predetermined length of time, as well as confidentiality in the companies ability to further carry out the scope of the change campaign, the consultants will vacate the premises. The consultants are available to call and discuss problems and/or ideas to continually improve upon the preconceived plan.In the months and years following the campaign, the company will further evaluate the effectiveness of the changes that were put in place. The company will either decide that the change process was a success, or they will decide that it needs further work. At this time, it may be in the companies best interest to hire a different consultation firm in order to correct the companies problems. It may be possible that the company will come to realize that there are other problems at play in the corporation that need to be analyzed and corrected.All of the sources that I have examined and researched, tend to follow the same ideals when it comes to organizational diagnosis and cultural evaluation. A few sources will change the names of the stages, but in effect, they are the exact same processes. Organizational diagnosis is a lot like troubleshooting a problem with any mechanical system. One must recognize the problem, find the source/s of the problem and develop a plan to correct or repair the problem. Unfortunately, when you are dealing with people, instead of mechanical objects, there are a lot more variables as well as unforeseeable pitfalls.In order to combat the instability of a dynamic corporation, executives, managers and even hourly employees must remain dynamic and receptive to a continually changing atmosphere. A company that tends to stay closed-minded and unreceptive to improvement is generally a short-lived company that will quickly be outdone by a continually changing marketplace. The global marketplace is a highly dynamic and competitive arena. In order for one to stay on top, you must be willing to continually one-up your c ompetitors.