Saturday, August 31, 2019
Kacee Bailey Public speaking 10/06/10 Martin Luther King Forum 1. What oratorical devices does Dr. King use to add vitality and force to his speech? 2. Do you think that Dr. King's dream has become a reality? Why or why not? 3. What changes could you make in your life to help Dr. King's dream become a reality at SWHS? 1. He pause a lot and he repeats himself. The way he talks is also very enticing it makes you want to pay attention. 2. Yes, We are a lot less segregated and there are many minority's in schools and there is no more separation for schools and public places. So I feel that Dr.Kings dreams ave very much come true. although in some states there is still racism. 3. I think that even though there is less segregation and less racism. People still look down to others. So a change we could make is if we see discrimination for race at SWHS we could approach the situation and try to figure things out with the two people. But you don't wanna make the situation worse so make sure t hat actually whats going on before you get in the middle. Ambrias Answers: 1. Dr. King forces his point by uses different points of inflection and volume in his voice when he speaks.There are points when he speaks louder than other points and where he emphasizes more on specific points. Also, he uses specific hand gestures at times when he wants to make a point very specific. 2. I think think that Dr. King's dream has opened up more because of the fact that this county is becoming more tolerant and accepting of others as the years go by. Has his dream been fully fulfilled? I don't think it has yet because there are still many people, especially in the southern states, who are very discriminatory against others.What he is dreaming is the fact that every will view each other as equal and stop the discrimination and until it fully stops the dream hasn't fully been fulfilled. 3. The changes I could make are that I could be more accepting of people with different view points as me. Also, I could go out of my way to be nicer to people everyday and try to make new friends no matter what others think of them or me. My Responses: 1. A agree with you. He uses a lot of volume and inflection. I also like ho you included his hand gestures. 2. I agree with you on this. Although I don't like how you said people are being tolerable.I think its more than just tolerating. But I do agree that it hasn't been completely fulfilled yet. 3. I like your views on this issue and I hope everything works ^_^ Chantalls Answers: 2. Yes, his dream has become reality. Even though there is still discrimination all around the world it has definitely died down. There is no more discrimination in schools or public places. In general people have a much more opened mindset towards other cultures, races, religions and so on. 3. One of the few things I can do to stop discrimination at SWHS is to not tolerate it.Laughing or agreeing with a racist joke that someone has said only allows to think that it s alright to say such things. By not tolerating it eventually teaches people that some things should be kept un-said. My responses: 1. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with you on number 2 because I think there is still a lot of racism in schools. But I do agree with you that there is less discrimination in public places. And the island does a good job at not being racist. 2. I agree with you completely. If people would stop laughing it wouldn't want to make other keep doing it. I love your answer I think everyone needs to fallow this exmple
Friday, August 30, 2019
Introduction When starting up a new business it is very important to look at the legal aspects which will influence the company in the future. In this part of the information file there will be the most important legal aspects for running a student company. First there is the selection of business form, in which there will be a compairison between the different possible forms. Afterwards a description of how the student company will work with contracts and partners. And finally there is an explanation of the typical dutch legal aspects such as profit tax and dividend. Business form Most important before starting the actual business is to compare the different possible legal business forms to make sure that it suits the intentions of the entrepreneurs. First the expanation per legal form will be given and afterwards a choice will be made for the student company itself. There are three basic legal business forms which can be chosen when starting up a new company: sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation. Each will be described shortly and afterwards the form of the student company will be given. Sole proprietorship The sole proprietorship is the oldest, most common, and simplest form of business organization. A sole proprietorship is a business owned and managed by one person. The prevalent characteristic of a sole proprietorship is that the owner is inseparable from the business. Because they are the same entity, the owner of a sole proprietorship has complete control over the business, its operations, and is financially and legally responsible for all debts and legal actions against the business. Another aspect of the Ã¢â¬Å"sameÃ entityÃ¢â¬ aspect is that taxes on a sole proprietorship are determined at the personal income tax rate of the owner. In other words, a sole proprietorship does not pay taxes separately from the owner. A sole proprietorship is a good business organization for an individual starting a business that will remain small, does not have great exposure to liability, and does not justify the expenses of incorporating and ongoing corporate formalitie. Corporation A corporation is a business entity which is owned by an individual or group of individuals and they run a business that legally exists. A corporate body is formed to regulate and manage business. People work as a unit in a corporation and produce the value that will generate income. A lot of employment is generated by corporations and they have now a big impact on economic growth and the social development of any country that operates in the free market system. A corporation has rights and responsibilities just like people have, and can also be liable to the processes of law just as an individual can. The characteristics of a corporation are the limited liability of shareholders, management being delegated to a board of directors, ownership by shareholders, transferable shares and that it has a separate legal personality. Relevance to Student company The fact that the student company will sell shares and therefore will be owned by the shareholders, the student company will be a corporation. Big advantage of this legal form is the spreading of the potential business risks because of the large amounts of shareholders. Disadvantages for the entrepreneurs is the limited power within the company because of the Ã¢â¬Å"voiceÃ¢â¬ of the shareholders and sharing the possible profit with the shareholders. Within shareholder meetings important decisions or problems will subject and together with the entrepreneurs the business strategies are set. Contracts with other parties Because the student company will be a trading company it is very important to make clear arrangements with the suppliers, customers and the entrepreneursÃ itself. This will split the the risks of the entrepreneurs as well as the business partners in the buying cyclus. Because it is still not clear what kind of product or service the student company wil sell, this will be researched later on in the market research. Laws and taxes When somebody wants to start up a company within the netherlands this person should notify the Inland Revenue as soon as they know when their company plans to start business. If this person starts as sole trader, a partnership, a limited partnership or a partnership under common firm, he or she can register the company for the Inland Revenue and the trade register at the same time. This can be done at the Chamber of Commerce. It is to your advantage to provide this information at an early stage: new companies which have made investments in their business often receive money back following their first value added tax return .This is because a new business often pays more value added tax in the beginning than it has actually charged. Value added tax It is almost always compulsory for businesses to charge clients value added tax. Businesses are nearly always liable to charge value added tax to their clients. The rate is 6% or 19% depending on the type of product or service. The value added tax which a company receive from the client must be paid to the Inland Revenue. The value added tax which the company has paid out itself to the suppliers can be offset against this. Value added tax is paid either monthly or quarterly, depending on the type of business and the level of turnover. Corporation tax If the company is a private company with limited liability, the owners will be liable to pay corporation tax. Corporation or corporate income tax is levied on companies established in the Netherlands and on certain companies not established in the Netherlands, which receive income from the Netherlands .In this context, the term Ã¢â¬Å"companyÃ¢â¬ includes companies with a capital consisting of share, co-operatives, mutual insurance and credit companies, foundations and other legal persons incorporated under civil law, when they administer an enterprise, funds for common account, and mostÃ publicly-controlled industrial and commercial undertakings. Basis of assessment Profits in the widest sense, with a number of additions or deductions. The determination of the taxable profits corresponds largely with the determination of profits taxable under personal income tax, including the deductibility of losses from other years. Exemptions Legal persons whose activities are of a social or charitable nature or otherwise in the public interest are exempted from corporation tax. Exempted categories of profit are those corresponding to the relevant exemptions under personal income tax. Furthermore the participation exemption applies to all dividends, gains and losses related to the holding of at least 5% of the shares in a subsidiary. This rule, preventing economic double taxation, is in general equally applicable to dividend deriving from domestic and foreign subsidiaries. The loss related to the winding-up of a subsidiary is, under certain conditions, deductible by the parent company. The deductibility of interest paid on non-functional loans and loans related to a reshuffle of participations within the group is restricted to certain circumstances. Another amendment permits companies to depreciate loss-making participations of 25% or more during the first five years after acquisition. Special features Fiscal unity: a company which holds 100% of the shares in a Dutch subsidiary may request to be qualified as a Ã¢â¬Å"fiscal unityÃ¢â¬ . However, certain conditions apply. It is possible for a fiscal unity to be consisted of more than two companies. The subsidiaries are considered to be absorbed by the parent. As a result, negative results of companies belonging to the unity can be compensated horizontally with positive results of the others. Interest paid to a group company in respect of the acquisition of shares in Dutch operating companies cannot be set off against the profit of these operating companies. Regime for investment funds: provided that all current income is distributed to shareholders and a number of other conditions are met, anÃ investment company or fund is entitled to add capital gains on securities and real property to a reinvestment reserve and to a rate of nil per cent on the remaining profit.
When evil reaches its peak, God showers its wrath on this mother Earth; these are not just the spoken words but each and every word of it is formulated as the voice of God in Bible through the story of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark and the Flood. This story in itself is a lesson for human beings to always incarnate, within their heart and soul, trust for God. In this world of today where man has generated immense wealth for himself but along with it, greediness has also taken over his soul. In this egoistic and greediness attitude, he often forgets, he owe his life to the nature and to the nature only he has to return. He has covered his eyes with the clothes of ignorance and this ignorance does not allow him to see the consequences of his actions and results and when the situation goes out of hands, it becomes impossible for him to escape the wrath of God and nature. BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s stories are not only the stories of bygone past but also the story of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation.Ã NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s story holds true not only in the contemporary society when it was written but for many generations past, and has relevance even today. This intricate nature of greediness has never subsided from man and to prove the point I will tell you story of a trader for whom it was popular that wealth would never vanish from his lockers. He was living with his wife, two sons and a daughter whom he adored a lot. Among the entire tradesmen, he was the richest and most respected of all. Day in day out, he was getting richer as if Goddess of wealth had showered all her blessings on him, but at the same time, pride and greediness had also occupied his soul. He would often boast of his wealth in front of every one who would come to his house or just pass him on the way, but he was ignorant of the fact that the way he was getting richer would one day become the cause of his doom too. In the quest of power and wealth, he even began to cheat other traders and his old time customers and dealers. In almost all the meetings, he would make fool of the people and take advantage of their simplicity. He would evade the law with impeccable perfection but he was possessive of his children and showered love on them but his egoism appeal never allowed him to have faith in God. In their whole family, it was only his daughter Sara who was different then others, as she was the most religious girl and would often be seen indulging in prayers and thanking God. She would often get rebuked from other members of the family and she with a smiling face would try to explain his father the power of prayers, but his father would often ignore her advice. Though man is possessed with all the materialistic wealth yet each man is suffering from moral debility and spiritual desiccation and same was true with Christopher. One day as he was so engrossed in revering his wealth and counting again and again his earnings, he did not realize, at the back corner of the room just behind his television, spark began to immerse out of the electricity wire and, when he was aware of the situation, it was too late. Wire hung from his television set burst into flames engulfing the entire room. He was not able to breathe properly and with great difficulty managed himself out of the room but soon fainted. After two hours when he gained consciousness he found himself at the hospital bed, and when he asked about the condition of his family and house, he was at the same time surprised as well as shocked. The fire had gushed down his whole room as well as adjacent rooms but there was only place in his entire house where fire did not even touch, it was his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s place of worship. When SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s room also caught fire, she instead of running away closed her eyes, folded her hands to pray to God and traced her step towards her place of worship where on one platform stood JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s framed photograph. She kept her cool and stayed near her Jesus while whole room was bursting with fire. All her belongings reduced to ashes and only things, which remained intact was her life and the photo of Jesus. This is a power of prayer. All the property of Christopher gutted down and the only thing left with him was the remembrance of his past days and his own family. He was now a poor man. One night before this incident, God had appeared before him and warned him to mend his ways else he would be punished, but he ignored the voice of God. Now when facing the abject poverty, he remembered this dream with remorse in his eyes. He now bowed his head towards God seeking pardon and redemption of his sins. Only one good thing he did in his life time and that was his true love for his family. So in this crucial period of his life, his family was with him taking care of him with utmost devotion. Bible through the story of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark and the Flood, warned the people to mend their ways, else they had to bear the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath and there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be any escape for them. In the story the people of the whole town were rich but were greedy and capricious. God send Noah time and again to warn these area against the wrath of God. But again and again they would refuse to accept the advice, as pride had already blinded them; instead they began to chalk out measures to protect themselves from the danger of floods. They said if God would send the flood of fire, they knew the way to protect themselves; if the flood of water would gush from the earth below or from rivers they would cover it with iron rods and if floods fell from heaven, they had means to protect themselves from that too. Christopher was greedy too and began to think himself above God. One hundred and twenty years were given to these people because near them lived a very pious and religious man, Methuselah. As long as he and other pious men would live, God would save them from destruction and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t shower any curse upon them. But when Methuselah died, still God gave them another week to mourn his death. During this week, there was complete change in workings of nature. Sun rose in the west and set in the east, and God even gave dainties to the sinners to show them that they would soon die and had to leave all their luxuries behind, which were being provided by the mother Earth. Even then sinners were adamant and when other religious and pious men too died, God began to show his signs of fury.Ã The whole area was flooded and only those people and animals that believed in God entered into NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s newly build Arch and got saved. Sara too just like Noah and other living beings was saved as she went into the shelter of God. It is aptly clear that greediness is a main culprit of man kind and whole hearted trust in God is a blessing for them. REFERNCE LIST Ginzberg, L. Noah. Legends of the Jews. Volume I. Retrieved on April 17 2008 from W.W.W: http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/lginzberg/bl-lginzberg-legends-1-4e.htm Ã Ã
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Comparing Human Resource Management in Multinational Companies in Hong Kong, and HRM in Hong Kong Local Companies - Literature review Example Their study was carried out to cover how local managers and professionals are managed in Western companies under joint ventures with local industries. Their study was able to cover 65 Chinese-Western joint ventures and they were able to establish that various Western human resources management have been implemented in China (Bjorkman and Lu, 1999). However, these companies were not able to completely implement human resources practices from their home country to their Chinese company. In other words, the local culture seems to play a huge part in the human resource management practices in Chinese companies. Sparrow and Hiltrop (1994) discuss that for Western companies, the assessment of performance are usually based on annual interviews between the individual and his or her superior, sometimes with the HR managers taking some part in the assessment process. For Chinese companies, individual employees usually take yearly self-assessment activities with the opinions of colleagues, subo rdinates, and superiors often considered in the evaluation process. One-on-one interviews as discussed by (Easterby-Smith, et.al., 1995) are not usual practices. Easterby-Smith, et.al., (1995) also point out that an imposing and personal approach to employee evaluation is avoided as much as possible for these Chinese companies. For MNCs operating in China, their HR practices are often influenced significantly, especially in relation to their local employees. The expectation for most local employees is for the application of their local culture in HR management and for multinational corporations (MNCs) the concessions would be an easier transition for them to make (Easterby-Smith, et.al., 1995). Child (1995) also discusses the focus given to individual performance and educational attainment predicting career development for Chinese firms. Moreover, favourable personal relations and the right political attitude seem to play also a strong role in the human resources management in Hong Kong firms. Favourable personal relations are part of the cornerstone of the Chinese culture which is also part of the socialist principles of management (Child, 1995). Wages have traditionally been managed by government bodies and age was often considered one of the most crucial predictors of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ earnings in government enterprises. In the 1990s, age became the more important determinant for earnings. More advanced education and training was also considered an important determinant for pay levels (Child, 1995). MNCs operated under these conditions and eventually influenced the determinants of pay levels in Asian companies. However, there are still differences in the management of these elements for local companies and MNCs in China because there is still resistance to the implementation of reform in the system, especially in relation to group incentive processes (Easterby-Smith, et.al., 1995). Bjorkman and Lu (1999) also emphasize that Western and Chinese models in HRM are different in various respects. For modern Western conceptualization of HRM, they consider employees as important resources which must be effectively managed. They consider the importance of systematic recruitment as well as training and development of human resources. They also consider personal involvement and participation in organizations as important
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
United States Vs. Afghanistan - Research Paper Example During prison period, American prisoners are not allowed to vote, they are not registered as members who can participate in the voting section of elections and neither there are any voting facilities within the prisons. This means that more than 1 million US citizens who have the right are not allowed to vote during US elections even though their age complies with age required to vote. Voting is a right that is awarded to all citizens of US except the citizens who are serving time in prisons. In 12 states of US certain rules and regulations have been created due to which US prisoners are not even recognized as complete citizens of US (Cnaan, 2004, p.9). Prisoners who have completed their time in prisons have no right to vote within the states of Florida, Virginia and Kentucky. Nine more states participate in such measures but for a limited period of time. Ex-prisoners within various states of US are not even allowed to work in public offices and certain states allow them to gain empl oyment in public sector after they have spend certain amount of time in the society since the time of their release. Ã In US when a criminal is arrested he is detained in local jails before the final jail is selected for him. Once sentence period is announced, certain numbers of prisoners are shifted to their assigned jails and certain prisoners spend more time in local jails before being finally shifted to their assigned jails. Local jails where prisoners are first detained are located within the areas of arrest.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Attitudes toward Economic Globilsation - Essay Example This increased level of globalization has necessarily meant that cultures and individuals that otherwise might not integrate with one another have come to the in closer contact and sharing a great many more similarities than they have any previous time within recorded human history. Further, globalization has created a litany of different opportunities and challenges for businesses; some of which have proven to either lift the company to a renewed level of success or serve to be its downfall. As such, it is the hope of this author that through such the discussion and appreciable view of the way in which current levels of globalization have formed international business into the entities that they are today will be useful with respect to understanding these dynamics. Finally, the paper will provide an overview of the way in which this has impacted the world over the past several decades. Ã Although there exist many definitions for the process of globalization, one of the most complete is describing it as a system whereby relations, social Ã¢â¬â political Ã¢â¬â and business, our extended throughout the world. As such, this is a term which impacts an array of different subject matters. These include but are not limited to economics, marketing, finance, accounting, sociology, anthropology, psychology, history, rhetoric, and an array of different subjects. Ultimately this process has had a profound impact on the way in which the most powerful economic powers in the world have developed.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Reagen last - Assignment Example Vietnam syndrome can be simply referred to a view mainly held by American conservatives that the loss of Vietnam War persuaded the American public to protest against any type of US-involved military conflict. More precisely, horrible memories of Vietnam War, including the images of killed soldiers and civilians, have influenced American to oppose any type of war. As a result of this fear of loss, any attempt by the US to become a part of a military conflict would be perceived by the American society as Ã¢â¬Ëanother VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢. Reagan was against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua and he tried to topple the Sandinista government with the help of US supported Nicaraguan contras. For this, Reagan encouraged guerilla war insurgency. Reagan adopted such a policy because he strongly believed that SandinistasÃ¢â¬â¢ victory would fuel revolution throughout the region and challenge the security of the US. Reagan turned against the Sandinista government specifically after the spread of social unrest to neighboring countries. Reagan introduced Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in 1983 in an effort to protect the country from strategic nuclear ballistic missile attacks. He held the view that this defense system would eliminate the possibilities of a nuclear war. The US involvement in Afghanistan in 1979 during CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency was simply to suppress the Soviet-led Afghan forces. It is obvious that the major intension of the US was to respond to the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan. Reagan administration not only continued this involvement but also increased the support significantly for Mujahideen. The Reagan doctrine was the strategy developed and executed by the US under the Reagan administration to abolish communist ideology from the world. It can be argued that the Reagan doctrine specifically focused on opposing the global influence of the Soviet Union.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
STL-2 knowledge based questions - Essay Example Moreover the type of research in terms of the object of study in also very important. If the object of study is an individual child, than only a single child is observed. However if the object of study is a group of children, than samples size should consist of a number of different groups. The aim of study children in groups is to analyze the behavior of child in a group. This could include the response of child to social phenomenon or just sleeping patterns of children living in groups etc. Therefore an individual child could be observed or the group could be observed as a whole. These observations can enable a researcher or parent to analyze the different needs of the child for example food, sleep etc. From an educational perspective these observations can help establish an understanding into the interests a child is showing. Both parents and doctors can then use this information and compare it with benchmarks to understand the progress in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s habits. Thus they can su pport the positive aspects and stop the negative ones. There are different procedures and methods to observing a child. The observations however should not interfere with the normal settings of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s daily schedule. This is because the aim of every research is to analyze how the child would perform and work in a normal environment. However if the researcher is not careful in ensuring that the original environment of the child is in intact the entire purpose of the research could be at risk. This is because if the original environment is tampered with the child would lose his routine. The observation in the new routine or state of mind would not be applicable in normal environment of other children. Therefore the validity of research would be severely harmed. The results acquired would have no significance. The best method is that observer should allocate timing according to the subject of observation. This would mean that
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Lockheed Martin vs Boeing - Essay Example Over the last few decades, the aviation industry has witnessed significant changes in its overall operating business environment. This change has resulted in creating both favorable as well as unfavorable circumstances. Nonetheless, these changes fundamentally impose challenges within an aviation industry to sustain the business efficiently by relying on the old business model (Office of Inspector General, 2012). At the same time, the current aviation industry can be regarded as highly competitive, high-technology and safety sensitive. Contextually, the effective human resource management (HRM) has emerged as one of the primary options among the airline companies in the aviation industry to establish their competitive advantages over their competitors. Due to the increasing customer awareness and expectation along with intense competition flourishing in the industry, the performance of an airline company is largely being determined by the efficiency and competencies of its human reso urces. Additionally, in order to survive in the global aviation industry, it is often being argued that a company must have skilled and dedicated employees who contribute their best for transforming the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and vision into reality. ... of human resource management (HRM) on the aviation industry and compares and contrasts the HRM practices of two major companies currently operating around the world which include Lockheed Martin and Boeing. Impact of Human Resource Management on the Aviation Industry Role of HRM in Aviation Industry Human resource management (HRM) is firmly related with the management of human assets within the internal context of an organization. The HRM deals with certain specific activities and practices that are being related with planning, developing, and retaining the most appropriate number of skilled and competent staffs within an organization which in turn facilitates in gaining competitive advantages and attaining the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives. Additionally, the role of HRM has dramatically expanded almost in all the sectors of business. Consequently, aviation industry is one where the dimensions of HRM are often being perceived as the crucial factors for attaining competit ive advantages in the highly competitive industry. Thus, the airline companies in the global aviation industry are primarily engaged in framing and implementing their own human resource strategies in order to seek the advantages of their efficient HRM over their major competitors in the current as well as future aspects. The aviation industry is also engulfed by several challenges from various sources such as recession, changes in technology and privatization. In order to warmly respond to such circumstances the global aviation industry has undertaken numerous measures to effectively tackle these problems arising from the aforesaid issues. A few major measures that have been widely implemented in the aviation industry include cost control strategies, positioning strategies and most importantly
Friday, August 23, 2019
Cause of drug abuse - Term Paper Example Additionally, it is possible to treat drug addiction and enable individuals to go back to their normal lives. Drug addiction can be described as a chronic disease that causes obsessive behavior in spite of the negative consequences to the individual and those around them. It leads to changes in the structure and functioning of the brain (Allen 67). It is clear that most individuals indulge in drug abuse voluntarily at first and overtime their self control is affected negatively influencing their lifestyle. The main causes of drug abuse are curiosity, peer pressure, genetics and family history and depression. There is a common saying that states that curiosity killed the cat. Well, this is the case for the cases of drug abuse and curiosity (Lowinson 48). Most individuals have probably heard about the influence of drugs and think that drugs can be so much fun and make individuals act differently. They may have seen how their friends or family members behave while under the influence of drugs and may want to experience how it feels. Furthermore, most movies and TV shows are based on themes surrounding drug abuse and depict it as being cool. This attracts a higher number of individuals that abuse drugs (Castillo 48). It is simply normal for people to try out drugs because they hear about them from various avenues and are curious about them. Peer pressure is among the leading causes of drug abuse in the contemporary society (Lowinson 48). This is especially true for young people who do it to feel cool, fit in and impress their friends. For example, if onesÃ¢â¬â¢ friends smoke marijuana or are alcoholics, they will probably be expected to take part in similar behavior. This urge to do what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s friends are doing is commonly referred to as peer pressure and has a strong influence on teenagers who are so desperate to fit in that they would be willing to do anything to impress their friends. This kind of influence is dangerous for hard drugs
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Differences between Private and Public Sexuality - Research Paper Example Sexuality incorporates ones human body, thoughts, and soul. This paper respects sex wholesome and does not focus on the physical methods of sex intercourse but aims to discover the issue of sexuality in the angle of its public and private aspects. To observe the issue, it is important to provide a clear definition of the sexuality, as it can be often confused. It is much wider than body and physical interaction; yet they are strongly involved. It covers the points of gender identification and gender role Ã¢â¬â to which sex a person refers him- or herself and a way he or she is expected to act according to it. Sexual orientation is, of course, important part of sexuality. Sexuality also concerns body image; it can drastically change peoples lives and determine their self-esteem and pleasure gained from life. Sexuality covers aspects of sexual experiences, fantasies, ideas etc. It defies the way our surrounding Ã¢â¬â friends, family, religion, society shape our sexual perceptions and convictions. Sexuality immerses through all areas of our lives; it is seen through the movements, mimics, conversations etc. It is connected with the way people feel love, compassion, intimacy, even sorrow ("Sexuality Resource Center for Pare nts"). Sex itself has undergone many changes; it is no longer a sin Ã¢â¬â neither it is a duty (Offit). A repetitive point in sociologies, particularly in gender and sex studies, is whether sexuality is a public or private issue. Public angle of sexuality and its implications could be observed from different social, economic, legitimate, cultural and political viewpoints. There are many angles that set restrictions and laws that define the ways of acceptable behaviors. These views usually vary from one country and culture to another. Sexuality was always ambiguous: there were private sex in the bedrooms in the boundaries of marriage and the same time there were prostitutions and
The character of Scrooge Essay He asks the ghost: Tell me if Tiny Tim will live if these shadows remain unaltered by the future, the child will die. This shows that Scrooge feels guilty for not giving his clerk more money as he witnesses their way of life. The ghost then takes Scrooge to visit his nephew Fred on Christmas day. Fred is having a splendid time and is celebrating a more modern Christmas with fun, laughter, drinking booze and playing games such as: similes and yes or no. It is less religious as they have more money and a bright, dry gleaming house However, they still have strong moral values like the Cratchits. Dickens suggests that Scrooge is missing out on the fun and games by saying, that the consequence of his taking a dislike to us and not making merry with us, is, as I think, that he loses some pleasant moments, which could do him no harm. This suggests that Scrooge starts to feel a bit of remorse, since he turned the invite down. Scrooge is forced to realise that he has missed a chance to be merry with the only family he has left in the world. Finally, the ghost shows Scrooge two personifications of the social situation in the form of two children: Ignorance (a boy) and Want (a girl), who symbolise mankinds downfall. Dickens uses this personification to emphasise the point of mankinds destruction, for instance the spirit says, Most of all beware this boy, for on his brow I see that written which Doom This signifies if people continue to ignore the poor, society will crumble. In this stave Scrooge feels new emotions such as regret for not paying his clerk Bob Cratchit enough money, since he lives in poverty with a huge family and a crippled son, and more regret for not attending the invite from Fred. Also, he feels a lot sadder and some happiness for Freds games and the laughter, Scrooges family had without him. The ghost of Christmas yet to come represents death and judgement, this ghost is also known as a phantom because it is wearing a black cloak which conceals its face and it doesnt say a word to add to the morbid atmosphere. They visited a house where there was one little knot of business men with a lady trying to sell some of Scrooges possessions, he sees nobody is upset by his death, but instead raiding his hose and selling off his property. I hope he didnt die of anything catching Eh? Dont you be afraid of that. This shows that people are joking over his death and no-one cares about his departure from the face of the earth. He is very upset that no-one cares about his death, all they can do is laugh and attempt to make a profit from his belongings. Scrooge asks the spirit If there is any person in the town, who feels emotion caused by this mans death Show that person to me, spirit They go to the Cratchits house, but The only emotion that the ghost could show him, caused by the event, was one of pleasure. This emphasises that no-one liked him and cared about him at all, so they were not sad to witness his death. After a while, they return to the Cratchits house where Bob has just returned from work. Dickens makes Scrooge feel miserable, regret and guilt that he did not offer his help to save Tiny Tim from dying, by making the Cratchit family more depressed, for instance, My little, little child! Cried Bob. My little child! He broke down all at once. This makes the reader feel sympathy for the Cratchits and anger towards Scrooge, as he did not help a poor family at need. Also, it makes Scrooge feel terrible and he realises that he must change his ways and become a better person, to stop these perceptions from happening. Stave four is a particularly religious section of the book, as it deals with Scrooges redemption and moral reformation. The language used by Dickens is similar to that used in a religious teaching, for example: Oh cold, cold, rigid, dreadful death, set up thine altar here. This biblical language is meant to make us aware that as readers we are being taught a moral lesson. All Christians believed strongly in heaven and hell; the thought of spending the rest of eternity in hell, frightened most Christians, so even the meanest of people would consider changing their ways to go to heaven. In stave five, Scrooge awakens on Christmas day as a changed man. He buys the largest turkey in town and donates it to the Cratchits. Ill send it to Bob Cratchits! This shows that Scrooge has finally reformed and he is now a better man, as he is being a lot more generous. Dickens shows that Scrooge has learnt his moral lessons and is not going back to his old ways, he does this by this continual joy, care and generosity, throughout the character of Scrooge in stave five, for example: Heres the turkey. Hallo! Whoop! How are you! Merry Christmas! This again emphasises that Scrooge has realised and acknowledged his faults and changed them; plus he donates lots of money to the poor, Scrooge says, not a farthing less This once more shows Scrooges generosity, the poor and the two gentlemen were very grateful. He also celebrates a lovely Christmas with his nephew; Dickens shows this by saying, Wonderful party, wonderful games, wonderful unanimity, won-der-ful happiness This stresses the changes Scrooge has made and that he is having a magnificent time with his family, at last. The next morning Scrooge was at his office ready to meet Bob Cratchit and give him a pay rise, he says Ill raise your salary, and endeavour to assist your struggling family And thats exactly what Scrooge did, he did not just raise Bobs salary, but he became like a second father to Tiny Tim, who did not die. There are many references to heaven in this stave such as: I am as happy as an angel, He went to church and God bless us, every one! in contrast to the references to hell when he was parsimonious, mean-spirited and had a cold heart, for instance, It is doomed to wander through the world , ages of incessant labour by immortal creatures, for this earth must pass eternity and dark master! This creates the impression that Scrooge was going to hell in stave one because he was stingy, cruel and uncharitable. Dickens teaches a social lesson to us, near the end of the book, so we remember it. He tells us not to worry if people laugh at the sudden change in you as long as you are doing good deeds that is all that matters, for instance, Some people laughed to see the alteration in him, but he let them laugh His own heart laughed: and that was quite enough for him. This puts emphasis on Scrooges reformation and confirms that Scrooge has changed for the better and for good. A Christmas Carol is an inverted tragedy, since it has five staves similar to the five acts of a Shakespeare play; but Scrooge begins a cold-hearted, cruel, spiteful and uncharitable and ends a loving, caring generous man with a stronger, warmer heart, especially to the poor and needy. Through the character of Scrooge, Dickens hoped to change the views of society by showing the rich people, who would have read the book that they were Scrooge (not sharing their wealth; being grumpy and cold-hearted). It reflects that money does not lead to happiness, but living a high-quality Christian, moral life does. As the book continues on, Scrooge becomes more and more enthusiastic to learn his moral lessons, for example: As I know your purpose is to do me good, and as I hope to live to be another man from what I was This shows his eagerness to gain knowledge of his moral and social lessons and his acceptance of his faults. Christianity was a vast issue in the 1840s, and the idea of burning in hell would have made a lot of people change their miserable, tight-fisted ways. This Christian theme is set throughout the book and if you repent your ways you will be saved (go to heaven). Dickens uses Christmas because it is an occasion when generosity, exuberance and affection should be in our hearts as a time to convey this message of charity.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Themes of American Culture John Pollina Today I will be a guest speaker at an elemtary school in China to discuss some themes of American culture. I will examine a particular American film, television show, and lastly a genre of music that depicts the aspects of American culture. The movie Rocky, the television series The Sopranos, and rap music all represent various ideas of American culture that children of China has benefit from a great deal. The film that shows an important theme of American culture is the movie Rocky. Rocky was introduced in 1976 starring Sylvester Stallone. This American classic shows the true underdog story of what the American dream of open mobility is all about. Rocky starts off in the film as a young street thug earning money through illegal work and straying down a bad path. After meeting local boxing coach Mickey Golmill, Rocky begins to train under his guidance and become one of the most successful boxers. After winning some local fights Rocky works his way up and makes a name for himself. An agent reaches out and offers Rocky a once in a lifetime opportunity to fight against the heavyweight champion of the world named Apollo Creed. The idea behind this fight was to give an average Joe fighter a shot at the American dream by getting the opportunity to fight the best combatant. Moreover, the second half of this film focuses on Rocky training and working for the biggest opportunity of his life. What follows is a brilliant montage of Rocky training through the tough streets of Philadelphia and ends with Rocky on a run by the middle being followed by a few to an entire crowd at his back finishing up the museum steps raising his fists in victory. The film continues by building up to the anticipated fight for the heavyweight title of the world between the amateur Rocky Balboa and defending champion Apollo Creed. What was looked at to be a quick fight that would most likely end with Rocky being knocked out in the first round, turned out to be a shot for shot war of sorts in the ring. Rocky loses by decision in the first film but by the second gets a rematch and claims the belt. Overall, the film Rocky is all about American values and achieving the American dream. Rocky went from rags to riches showing that people in different social classes can move up in the world. Anyone who has the motivation to succeed, the determination and hard work to make it will indeed make it. Rocky first fought in the slums of Philidephia and worked hard to becomet he heavyweight champion. He truly represents the average American in this country that has built a name for itself as the land of opportunity. America is the place where big dreams and hard work could lead to countless oppurtunities to be successful. Apollo Creed in this film represents the golden road to success that every American opportunist strives for. With that road comes great struggle for what you wish to achieve, which is why this film is such a beautiful portrayal of what it means to dream big and accomplish that dream. Secondly, a great American television show that shows a strong portyal of American culture is the series called The Sopranos. This series features actor James Gandolfini who plays lead role and crime boss of North Jersey, Tony Soprano. Tony lives a very complex life juggling the difficult tasks of being boss of a mafia crime family life at home with his wife and children . he also faces a number of internal issues such as anxiety and panic attacks. One of the many ways The Sopranos portrays American culture and its ideals is through the form of greed. Greed is a constant theme on the show as well as in the history through current events of American culture. Although there is many ways to be successful in this country like earning an honest living, that is not always the case in our culture. The other way of being successful is through illegal revenue. This path pursues money through stealing and taking what you want through any means. Although an honest days living is clearly always the way to go, The Sopranos shows that our culture also appreciates a great storyline through crime that most certainly always ends up with drama. Another American culture aspect that we see during The Sopranos is money,sex, guns and violence. This culture sees these acts as a part of being successful accomplishing those aspects and being the dominant alpha of sorts. In The Sopranos we see consant competition to achieve that alpha status and to get that power every individual or even crime family combined will do whatever it takes to achieve that. Just like in American culture reguardless of it being the crime business or even the corporate business the fight to be number on never ceases to exist. You are what you make yourself in this culture that we call the land of oppurtinity. Overall, the most important theme of American culture in this televisous series is the idea of what the American dream happiness really means. Everyone believes that is is the American dream to have a big house, have nice cars, have children an help children achieve their goals will lead to a happy life. We see at the end of the seven year series that this is not what constitutes as being happy. The Sopranos had wealth, a successful business, and educated children however, they are shown not to be so happy evenr with all of this success. Disappointment is attached to such unattainable perfect standards. The characters seek so much happiness through material objects shaped by society. Through all the money and material wealth, these characters were never truly happy people. The perfect life doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t men you have to be rich or famous. Money makes things easier but it does not make you live a fulfilled life especially when you go through criminal means to obtain your goals. In addition, a genre of music that represents a theme of American culture is rap. Rap music has been apart of American tradition for some time featuring artists that come from a vast array of different cultures and backgrounds. Even though rap music ranges in many different tones and styles, tells us a story on the life of the artist rapping. The song and the background music is a way of self-expression for ones feelings.Rap songs in this culture are songs that people relate to for whatever situation or life path they are going through. Some songs might be about love others could be sex and the traditional style of guns and violence. The freedom of expression that we have in this country is very clear in the music that has been produced in the past and songs that will continue to be released in the future. In the American culture we do not see much of a filter of the rap songs that we listen to as opposed to other countries were it is not accepted to produce or even listen to profanity. A rapper that is well known in American culture is Marshal Mathers more known by his stage name as Eminem. Growing up through the tough streets of Detriot, Eminem faced the harsh realities that many underprivileged American children do. He dropped out of school at an early age and began working for minimum wage to support his family. The thing about American culture that Eminem clearly understood is that no matter what position you are in success can be right around the corner if you work torwards it. This culture sets the bar on how successful you are by the car you drive the amount of money you have and the home you live in. This is why most rap songs are about the underpriveliged life the rapper has gone through. They wear this on their sleeves showing that they made it out of that life to something better. When listening to Eminems music you get the sense of what kind of person he is. America can be a very tough place and people in this culture who become truly successful are never ones to look for a handout and hardly ever get one. Emeniem understood that as he was making his way up he when he was promised record deals, studio time, and oppurtunities to present his music to recording artists. Many people tried to cheat him and steal his hard work. However, after so much disappointment and failure trying to make his dreams become a reality, he knew that being a success was something he had to do on his own if he ever wanted to make it out of the poverty stricken town of Detriot he grew up in. Fast forwarding a few years and in 2030 a movie was written from a foreign prospective based on the movie Rocky. In Asian culture honor is a very important factor amongst the community. Therefore, the character who portrays Rocky treats others, especially elders, with more respect. This is different from the American viersion of Rocky since the American boxer has a more defiant attitude towards people especially torwards his future trainer Mickey who was much older in age. Another difference is the fighting style that the boxers take on. The American boxer has a different style compared to Asian fighting. Chinese fighting preparations are much different than in the U.S culture including training routines and the fighters diet that needs to be maintained. In the American Rocky a classic scene in all the movies is Rocky cracking raw eggs in a glass and drinking it for protein. However, in the Asian version we might see the Asian boxer eating a fish of some sort for protein since that i sa more traditional dish amongst that culture. Moreover, the sceneary of the film will be much different. In the American Rocky, he is training through the streets of Philidalphia passing historical American monuments that we in this culture would recognize. However, in the Chinese version we would see the fighter possibly training through the streets of China and finishing his training run up the great wall of China which would more appropriate in this version being that its something the Chinese viewers would know and understand. The music soundtrack from the Chinese version would be much different then the original soundtrack from the American Rocky. Chinese music is much different in terms of the tones and instruments played. The lyrics that we hear in the songs and the lyrics that are sang from the artists. Chinese music is also very highly censored so the music would most likely be in a very proper manner. Chinese culture and regulations from the government only allow things to be produced that bring positive reinforcement to the greater good of China so you might find some of the plot changed up and the messages given to viewers would differ as well. Lastly, the end scene will be different when we see Rocky raise his fists in victory at the end of the fight the Chinese Rocky might bow because that is a sign of honor in China. All in all, American culture has many beautiful tings to offer in terms of the films, television series and music. This country has shown time and time again we produce things that inspire the world. Although when reproduced in other countries there are some very different variations that we see. Every place in the world has their own ideals and messages that is viewed and perceived as a norm, but America has and will continue to produce things that inspire. There are many reasons as to why these specific medias are important and should be shared with the Chinese culture. China has so many censorships on all types of media. They refuse to display anything to their people that contain obscene and vulgar substances, murder, violence and even bloodiness for some examples. The Sorpanos and rap music by Eminem contain most of these contents that are prohibited by the Chinese government. However, they should be more open-minded about the messages that are being sent through such content. This is because even with violence and bloog and vulgar language, there is a lesson that is trying to be portayed and those messages are very important. The Sopranos continually showed that money does not make happiness and the theme of the movie Rocky and EminimenÃ¢â¬â¢s music shows that those at the very bottom can make it in life with hard work and perserverence. Chinese culture respects hard work and education but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t see that what they dee m negative content can show the same ideals but in a different way. References http://www.indiewire.com/article/how-to-be-censored-in-china-a-brief-filmmaking-guide
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Influence of Trade Unions on Collective Bargaining Critically Evaluate Trade Union Strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining with Multi National Corporations as a means of regulating terms and conditions of employment To reply the question above, firstly we should know what are trade unions? The answer to that is, A trade union (British ) or labor union (American) is an organization of labourers who have bonded together to achieve same goals such as better working conditions. The labour union, through its leadership, bargain with the multinationals on behalf of trade union members and negotiates worker contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation of pay, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreement negotiated by the trade union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. (First published by George Allen and Unwin Ltd (London) in 1952, and subject of reprints Foreword by Arthur Deakin) Discovered in Europe, trade unions became famous in many countries during the Industrial Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most jobs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the employers side, causing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid. Labour union organizations may be consist of individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. Published by Batch worth Press (London) in 1949 In last 300 years, many trade unions has developed in different form, influenced be different political parties for their objectives which include Provision of benefits to members, Collective bargaining Trade unions put many efforts in collective bargaining with multinational organizations. Now what collective bargaining is? Collective bargaining is a process between employers and workers to reach a decision regarding the rights and duties of workers at work. Collective bargaining aims to reach a collective agreement which usually sets out issues such as employees pay, working hours, training, health and safety, and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs. During the bargaining process, employees are typically represented by a trade union. The union may negotiate with a one employer (who is typically representing a companys shareholders) or may negotiate with a federation of businesses, depending on the country, to reach an industry wide agreement. Buidens, Wayne, and others. Collective Gaining: A Bargaining Alternative. Phi Delta Kappan 63 (1981): 244-245 A collective agreement work as a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between members of a labour union and employers (generally represented by management, in some countries by an employers organization) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a collective bargaining. Answering the question Trade Union Strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining with Multi National Corporations as a means of regulating terms and conditions of employment Moving further we have to evaluate trade union strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining by enlarging maturity of collective bargaining implies larger of the rational wayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ This reasonable procedure involves the employee, employer, and union settling on the basis of facts rather than name-calling, table pounding, and emotionalism (Sloane, Witney, 203-204). Therefore, in order to make collective bargaining more rational certain procedure are taken in to action. Edward Peters has written a guide to better negotiating titled Strategy and Tactics in Labor Talks. In this book he suggest good wayss for obtaining a more rational negotation. The first important step toward better bargaining is to realize the essential purpose of talks and importance of talks. In a bargaining conflict, there are three main activities in which each party is involved: (1) attempt to impress each other, the workers, and public opinion by advocating the merits of their current pos itions; (2) indicate bonding to each other; and (3) explore the prospectus, in terms of each others maximum and minimum expectancies, of a settlement without an economic contest, or, at worst, a contest of minimum duration (Peters, Edward, 41). Peters says that cosmopolitan bargainers often underestimate the importance of good preparation and presentation of their position because they feel that these are just window dressing for the harsh realities of economic strength (Peters, 42). It is true that economic strength is important, but a position reinforced by logic and reason can often exert a crucial influence (Peters, 42). Another step toward better talks is preparation and the setting of realistic goals. Peters states that the pragmatic or impracticality of a collective bargaining goal is a matter of foresight, not something to be determined by hindsight (Peters, 60). An example of this that pertains to management is that sometimes there are items that a labour union cannot and w ill not grant. If management does not prepare enough and makes the assumption that the union can and will negotiate on any proposal submitted by management, they risk the possibility of strikes. There are many other issues overwhich trade unions may agreee to lose a plant in an economic contest rather than endanger itself with a big group (Peters, 60). If the administrations set more realistic goals then the results may not be that harmful. In order to set realistic goals, a criteria for realistic goals must be established. Most conveyour, according to Peters, would agree that a realistic goal, to be attained without an economic contest, must be based on the following minimum considerations: (1) has the other party the ability to grant the issue? The employer must be able to grant the issue without any serious damage to operations. The union must be able to grant the issue without issue without serious internal injury, or any danger to an organization, or losing out to a rival union ; also wi thout seriously impairing its external relationships in the labor movement, or with other employers; are you warranted, by your strength, in setting such a goal? (3) Is your goal within the bargaining expectancy of the other party? This last point may be disregarded only if you are ready to wage an economic contest for your minimum goal (Peters, 61-62). These criteria should be fully examined before setting any goal or pressing any issue in a labor negotiation. Priorities must be established and ranked in order of impact and importance (Richardson, Reed C., 128). Even though setting realistic goals help in talks, a course of action must be pursued in order to obtain those goals. Prestige plays an essential role in talks. Reputation is an intangible quality in the sense that it is a symbol-a symbol of the potential and actual strengths of the parties in all of their relationships. Prestige reflects itself in the relationship of the parties to eac h other and especially to the employee in the plant. A unions basic strength lies in the support of its own membership (Peters, 85-86). Other factors that affect during talks are sign language, fringe issues, and negotiable factors. However, the most important tactics take place before the actual talks. Conveyour who approach the bargaining bench without sufficient factual information to handle the growing complexities of labor relationsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦operate at a distinct disadvantage (Sloane, Witney, 213). Most larger unions and almost all major corporations today have their own research departments to gather data and conduct surveys. Only if both parties research and establish a framework for talks can they successfully obtain results within their range of acceptability. With this in mind, collective bargaining can mature to its desired rationality in the management-labor relationship. Conclusion By carefully reading the above matter we can say that cooperation plays an important and crucial role for the relationship between management and its employees and their trade union representatives and though it is not surprising that internationalization of management through the multinational cooperations and had adverse impact on the relationship and trade union strategies. There are several dimensions and concern of the trade union with respect to the multinational cooperations. There are number of advantages acquiring to the firms as their multinational nature. To counteract the strength of these multinational, trade union organizations have developed new institutional structures and strategic thrust. Trade union strengthing, legal regulation and cross national cooperative strategies are explored as they occur at every level of trade union movement. And the central role of these trade unions strategies is to the development of trade union bargaining capabilities. Words: 1480
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Violence of Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta Ã Ã Ã Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta is a violent, bloody, destructive play that literally jars the senses.Ã Part of this is due to the modern reader's background:Ã we see the characters through modern eyes, with distinct views of "low class" and "high class."Ã It would be easy, as such, to discount The Jew of Malta as only appealing to the base interests of its time, and it would be only slightly less easy to protest that it has meaning beyond any crude first glance, and that the extreme acts presented are merely metaphors for deeper social commentary.Ã Steane writes: Ã There is a general feeling that this is a play of distinctive character, and an equally widespread difference of opinion as to what that character exactly is.Ã Few plays have been given more names: tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, tragical-comical, farcical-satirical, 'terribly serious' or 'tediously trivial'; 'terrifying', it seems, cannot be too heavy a term, nor 'absurd' too light [sic]. (166) Ã The Jew of Malta is extreme, and is meant to be extreme.Ã The protagonist, Barabas, is gleeful, scheming evil, and does not represent anything other than himself.Ã Barabas, with his frequent asides, betrayals on top of betrayals, and unending blood-thirst, is the eye of the play's chaotic, whirling storm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marlowe, too often seen in Shakespeare's shadow as an inferior whose modest body of work either pales to the mighty canon of Shakespeare or merely subtly influences him as a popular contemporary, produced in The Jew of Malta, and in Barabas, wit and savagery, perhaps to a degree foreign to most audiences.Ã Much is also made of Barabas as a Jew... ...ontested status of Huckleberry Finn).Ã But a given work, even as edgy a work as The Jew of Malta, can be reasonably expect a fair break from the "liberal arts" critical interpreters, who, doubtless, will reveal hidden meanings, as well as postulate new meanings, in this worthy work in the coming years. Ã Ã Ã Works Cited Deats, Sara Munson, and Lisa S. Starks.Ã "'So neatly plotted, and so well perfom'd': Villain as Playwright in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta."Ã Theatre Journal.Ã Vol. 44, 1992.Ã 375-389. Eliot, T. S.Ã "The Blank Verse of Marlowe."Ã The Sacred Wood.Ã London: Methuen, 1964.Ã 86-94. Henderson, Philip.Ã Christopher Marlowe.Ã New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974. Marlowe, Christopher. Ã The Jew of Malta.Ã Ed. James R. Siemon.Ã London: Black, 1994. Steane, J. B.Ã Marlowe: A Critical Study.Ã London: Cambridge UP, 1964. Ã The Violence of Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta Essay -- Jew of The Violence of Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta Ã Ã Ã Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta is a violent, bloody, destructive play that literally jars the senses.Ã Part of this is due to the modern reader's background:Ã we see the characters through modern eyes, with distinct views of "low class" and "high class."Ã It would be easy, as such, to discount The Jew of Malta as only appealing to the base interests of its time, and it would be only slightly less easy to protest that it has meaning beyond any crude first glance, and that the extreme acts presented are merely metaphors for deeper social commentary.Ã Steane writes: Ã There is a general feeling that this is a play of distinctive character, and an equally widespread difference of opinion as to what that character exactly is.Ã Few plays have been given more names: tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, tragical-comical, farcical-satirical, 'terribly serious' or 'tediously trivial'; 'terrifying', it seems, cannot be too heavy a term, nor 'absurd' too light [sic]. (166) Ã The Jew of Malta is extreme, and is meant to be extreme.Ã The protagonist, Barabas, is gleeful, scheming evil, and does not represent anything other than himself.Ã Barabas, with his frequent asides, betrayals on top of betrayals, and unending blood-thirst, is the eye of the play's chaotic, whirling storm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marlowe, too often seen in Shakespeare's shadow as an inferior whose modest body of work either pales to the mighty canon of Shakespeare or merely subtly influences him as a popular contemporary, produced in The Jew of Malta, and in Barabas, wit and savagery, perhaps to a degree foreign to most audiences.Ã Much is also made of Barabas as a Jew... ...ontested status of Huckleberry Finn).Ã But a given work, even as edgy a work as The Jew of Malta, can be reasonably expect a fair break from the "liberal arts" critical interpreters, who, doubtless, will reveal hidden meanings, as well as postulate new meanings, in this worthy work in the coming years. Ã Ã Ã Works Cited Deats, Sara Munson, and Lisa S. Starks.Ã "'So neatly plotted, and so well perfom'd': Villain as Playwright in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta."Ã Theatre Journal.Ã Vol. 44, 1992.Ã 375-389. Eliot, T. S.Ã "The Blank Verse of Marlowe."Ã The Sacred Wood.Ã London: Methuen, 1964.Ã 86-94. Henderson, Philip.Ã Christopher Marlowe.Ã New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974. Marlowe, Christopher. Ã The Jew of Malta.Ã Ed. James R. Siemon.Ã London: Black, 1994. Steane, J. B.Ã Marlowe: A Critical Study.Ã London: Cambridge UP, 1964. Ã
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Hacking has been around for more than a century. Members of the public have had their personal information stolen and passed all over the internet. A hacker is a person who uses computers to gain unauthorized access to data. Like for an example in October 2011 Sony the company that owns PlayStation was hacked by some intruders. The intruders staged a massive attempt to access user accounts on its PlayStation Network and other online entertainment services (Hosaka,2011). ; this is also an example of port scan. Port scans and ping sweep, is very dangerous for companies because it will allow people to hack your network or personal information and create viruses that could do a lot of damage to your computer or network. Port scan is a very popular tool that many hackers use to get unauthorized access to a lot of networks across the world. A port scan is a series of messages sent by a hacker that is attempting to break into a computer to learn which computer network services have an open port. Usually when hackers have a plan to hack a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s network they usually use port scan or sometimes ping sweeps because itÃ¢â¬â¢s a very great tool to use in a hacking process. Ping sweeps and port scans are very dangerous but can be preventable for most companies. Also port scan and ping sweep can impact a company in a negative way that can cause personal information to be given out to the public. If this happen to a company this can cause emergency shutdown and possible shutting down the company until the hackers are identify. (Jr. Pyles,n.d.). In the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s Kevin Mitnick a 25 years old veteran hacker secretly monitors the emails of MCI and Digital Equipment security officials. Kevin Mitnick successfully did this by using the port scan to fi... ...st couple of years. In order to prevent intruders from using port scans or ping sweep to enter a network, companies must have an antivirus software that fights off any intrudersÃ¢â¬â¢ commands or entrance attempts because if companies do then they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a problem with hackers trying to hack their network system. References Hosaka, T. (2011, October 12). Sony hack october. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/12/sony-hack-october-2011-playstation-network_n_1006661.html Jr. Pyles, G. (n.d.). Ping sweeps and port scans. Retrieved from http://gregorympyles.wordpress.com/information-systems/case-studies/ping-sweeps-and-port-scans/ Ward, M. (2011, June 9). A brief history of hacking . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13686141 A history of hacking. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sptimes.com/Hackers/history.hacking.html
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ethical Principles for Research There is four well-known moral principles constitute the basis for ethics in research. They are first, the principle of non-maleficence. It means that the research must not cause harm to the participants in particular and to people in general. Second is the principle of beneficence. That show the Research should also make a positive contribution towards the welfare of people. It should be provide benefit for whatever treatment is. Third is the principle of autonomy. The research must respect and protect the rights and dignity of participants. For my perspective if my doctor ask me to take an antibiotic to treat the infection, is my right to consent the treatment or withdraw my consent. Next is the principle of justice. The benefits and risks of research should be fairly distributed among people. The ten general ethical principles, presently relevant for social science research in health are as follows. First is essentiality. This is for undertaking research it is necessary to make all possible efforts to get and give adequate consideration to existing literature/knowledge and its relevance, and the alternatives available on the subject/ issue under the study. Second is, Maximisation of public interest and of social justice. That means that the research is a social activity, carried out for the benefit of society. It should be undertaken with the motive of maximisation of public interest and social justice. Third is knowledge, ability and commitment to do research. It shows that sincere commitment to research in general and to the relevant subject in particular, and readiness to acquire adequate knowledge, ability and skill for undertaking particular research are essential prerequisites for good and ethical research. Next is the respect and protection of autonomy, rights and dignity of participants. This research involving participation of individual must not only respect, but also protect the autonomy, the rights and the dignity of participants. The participation of individual must be voluntary and based on informed consent. Next is the privacy, anonymity and confidentiality. It shows that all information and records provided by participants or obtained directly or indirectly on/about the participants are confidential. For revealing or sharing any information that may identify participants, permission of the participants is essential. Then, the precaution and risk minimisation. For this research all research carries some risk to the participants and to society. Taking adequate precautions and minimising and mitigating risks is, therefore, essential. Then,non-exploitation. The research must not unnecessarily consume the time of participants or make them incur undue loss of resources and income. It should not expose them to risks due to participation in the research. The relationship within the research team, including student and junior members, should be based on the principle of non- exploitation. Contribution of each member of the research team should be properly acknowledged and recognised. Next is public domain. It needed all persons and organisations connected to research should make adequate efforts to make public in appropriate manner and form, and at appropriate time, information on the research undertaken, and the relevant results and implications of completed research. Then, accountability and transparency. The conduct of research must be fair, honest and transparent. It is desirable institutions and researchers are amenable to social and financial review of their research by an appropriate and responsible social body. They should also make appropriate arrangements for the preservation of research records for a reasonable period of time. Last but not least, totality of responsibility. The responsibility for due observance of all principles of ethics and guidelines devolves on all those directly or indirectly connected with the research. They include institution where the research is conducted, researcher, sponsors/funders and those who publish material generated from research.
Table of Contents 1. 0 Introduction2 2. 0 Initial Situation Ã¢â¬â Case Analysis2 2. 1 The History of Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)2 2. 2 Peter R. Dolan3 2. 3 What is Plavix? 3 2. 4 Plavix Generic Drug Agreements4 2. 5 DolanÃ¢â¬â¢s Fate5 3. 0 Questions and Answers6 3. 1 Q1) What principles of distributive Negotiation did Sherman use to gain his advantage? 6 3. 2 Q2 ) Do you think Sherman behaved ethically? Why or why not? 7 3. 3 Q3) What does this incident tell you about the role of deception in negotiation? 9 4. 0 Conclusion10 1. 0 Introduction All organisations form an integral part of the global village. Therefore organisations have become open systems due to deregulation, ever changing technology, lifestyle and demographics. In order to be triumphant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamic environment organisations need to focus on the environment it operates in and have to react swiftly to the changes that occur by developing negotiation strategies to stay ahead of competition. Strategy is embedded in any organisations planning process and without strategy the organisation will become a candidate for acquisitions or would become extinct. In this report we have analysed the case of Ã¢â¬Å"DAVID OUT-NEGOTIATIONG GOLIATH: APOTEX AND BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBBÃ¢â¬ , which is based on a real world scenario about the survival of two giants of the pharmaceutical industry at stake. Our main objective is to analyse the main conflicts and negotiation issues which have arisen during the negotiation process between the two giants and also to look at how their internal objectives have driven them to the final result. Therefore, we present some more external information about the elevant case to get a better background knowledge, and also we have analysed the main issues by answering the questions which have been brought up in the case. 2. 0 Initial Situation Ã¢â¬â Case Analysis 2. 1 The History of Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) In early 1887, William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers invested $5,000 into a failing drug manufacturing firm located in Clinton, New York. The company was officially incorporated on December 13, 1887, an d in May 1898 changed its name to the Bristol, Myers Company. According to the records Bristol-Myers merged with Squibb in 1989 and created a global leader in the health care industry as Ã¢â¬Å"Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)Ã¢â¬ . By this merger it created the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second-largest pharmaceutical enterprise. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) Today, Bristol-Myers Squibb has become one of the leading worldwide provider of anti-cancer therapies as well as a leader in the discovery and development of innovative treatments to fight heart disease, stroke, and infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS. (http://www. awpagesociety. om/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) 2. 2 Peter R. Dolan Peter R. Dolan has received his BA from Tufts University in 1978, and his MBA from Dartmouth College in 1980. He began his career at General Foods from 1983Ã¢â¬â1987, but by 1988 had transferred to BMS as Vice-President of Marketing. Dolan was named CEO in Februar y 2001 and made Chairman of the Board in 2002. He was infamous within the company for setting Ã¢â¬Å"Big Hairy Audacious GoalsÃ¢â¬ , such as his 2001 promise to double BMS revenues within five years. He regretted about that particular statement, as 2002 sales totalled came down from $18. billion, which was 1% of a decrease from 2000. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) 2. 3 What is Plavix? Plavix was a FDA-approved anti-platelet daily medication that reduces the risk of heart attack. Plavix was brought to market through a partnership between Bristol-Myers Squibb and French drug maker Sanofi-Aventis, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third largest pharmaceutical company and the largest in Europe. Plavix 2005 global sales were $5. 9-billion, up more than 15% from 2004. According to Pharmaceutical Business Revenue and Data Monitor, sales were expected to peak at $6-billion in 2011. http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FI NAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) 2. 4 Plavix Generic Drug Agreements In July 2006, BMS announced that the U. S. Justice Department was investigating the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s March 2006 agreement with Canadian generic drug manufacturer Apotex. The agreement was intended to delay the ApotexÃ¢â¬â¢s release of an inexpensive generic version of Plavix. Under the terms of Bristol-MyersÃ¢â¬â¢ ill-conceived agreement with Apotex, BMS offered Apotex $40 million to halt production of the generic Plavix until June 1, 2011. This date was five months before the Plavix patent was set to expire. Bristol-Myers also agreed not to release its own non-branded Plavix until six months after Apotex began to sell its generic version of the blood thinner. When asked to approve the agreement, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and state Attorneys General objected to these provisions. They labelled the Bristol-Myers concession anti-competitive because it assured that Apotex would be the sole market vendor of cheap, generic Plavix for at least six months. So, Bristol-Myers Squibb agreed to remove the anti-competitive provision from the contract. Nevertheless, the FTC began questioning Apotex regarding the revised agreement. During these questioning sessions, Apotex told the federal regulators that Bristol-Myers had given Apotex private assurance that it would not release a general version of Plavix to the market. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) When the agreement did not receive approval, Apotex quickly introduced its generic version of Plavix (which had obtained FDA approval earlier that year), and the drug became universally available in August 2006. Apotex priced the generic version at an estimated 10 to 20 percent discount. ApotexÃ¢â¬â¢s generic Plavix quickly gained 75% market share of new prescriptions. Within the month, Bristol-Myers Squibb was able to get a United States District Judge to order a temporary injunction halting further sales of the generic Plavix. However, the judge did not order a recall of generic Plavix. The District Court ruled that Apotex had the legal right to sell its generic version of Plavix. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) After only one month of generic Plavix competition, BMS was forced to reduce its 2006 earnings forecast by 25%. Bristol-MyersÃ¢â¬â¢s reduced per share earnings estimate was below the company dividend, meaning that Bristol would be paying more to shareholders than it actually earned. In sum, over the five years of DolanÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure, the stock price of Bristol-Myers Squibb had declined by over 60%. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) 2. 5 DolanÃ¢â¬â¢s Fate On September 12, 2006, CEO Peter Dolan and General Counsel Richard K. Willard were dismissed by the Bristol-Myers board. Dolan was replaced on an interim basis by James M. Cornelius, a Bristol-Myers director and former executive at Guiding Corporation. (http://www. awpagesociety. com/images/uploads/Case_FINAL3. pdf Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 21, March 2011) 3. 0 Questions and Answers 3. 1 Q1) What principles of distributive Negotiation did Sherman use to gain his advantage? Negotiation occurs whenever two or more conflicting parties attempt to resolve their divergent goals by redefining the terms of their interdependence. In, Other Words, People negotiate when they think that iscussion can produce a more satisfactory arrangement (at least for them) in their exchange of goods or services. ( McShane and Travaglione , 2003) A distributive negotiation is a type or process that normally entails a single issue to be negotiated. The single issue often involves price and frequently relates to the bargaining process. Also referred to as Ã¢â¬ËWin Ã¢â¬â LoseÃ¢â¬â ¢, or Ã¢â¬ËFixed Ã¢â¬â PieÃ¢â¬â¢ negotiation because one party generally gains at the expense of another party. (http://www. negotiations. com/definition/distributive-negotiation/) Ã¢â¬â Accessed on 27, March 2011) Despite the fact that BMS and Apotex entered the negotiation process, with the primary goal of achieving a Ã¢â¬ËWin-WinÃ¢â¬â¢ situation which will lead to an integrative negotiation. However according to our analysis we feel that the negotiation ended on a Ã¢â¬ËWin- LoseÃ¢â¬â¢ note, resulting in a distributive negotiation. Dr. Barry Sherman (Apotex) when negotiating with BMS, has used following distributive negotiation principles in order to achieve his Goals. Goal Ã¢â¬â In this case scenario, Dr. Sherman wanted to direct the negotiation in a way that would maximise his benefits as much as possible. As an example, Dr. Sherman inserted a clause in the deal that would require the BMS to pay Apotex $60 Million Ã¢â¬Å"IFÃ¢â¬ FTC rejected the deal. Motivation and Focus Ã¢â¬â When engaged in distributive bargaining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics are to focus on getting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s opponent to agree to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s specific target point or to get as closer as possible. (Robbins, 2005) Ã¢â¬Å"I Win, You loseÃ¢â¬ - where ApotexÃ¢â¬â¢s win is at the expense of BMS. Further it could be noted that the outcome of the negotiation falls outside the BMSÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance point indicating a total victory for Dr. Barry Sherman and Apotex . The two CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s being opposed to each other is another distributive negotiation characteristic seen throughout the situation where BMSÃ¢â¬â¢s goal in this negotiation is to delay the launch of ApotexÃ¢â¬â¢s generic competitor, where as ApotexÃ¢â¬â¢s / Dr ShermanÃ¢â¬â¢s motive being its opposite. Information Sharing Ã¢â¬â In this negotiation process information sharing was low. This was evident through the clause inserted in the deal, and also by Dr. Sherman not disclosing the preparation of launching the generic product before the agreed date. Duration of Relationship Ã¢â¬â It is visible that the focus of the relationship between BMS and Apotex was Ã¢â¬Å"Short TermÃ¢â¬ mainly due to fact that Dr Sherman was aware of FTCÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and the impact that would have on the negation process. 3. 2 Q2 ) Do you think Sherman behaved ethically? Why or why not? The answer to this question depends on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s values, culture, and the situation. What might be acceptable in poker would probably not be acceptable in most business situations. What might be acceptable in New York might not be acceptable in Ottawa. Different cultures and different situations contain inherent Ã¢â¬Å"rulesÃ¢â¬ about the degree to which bluffing or misrepresentation is deemed acceptable. (**** I have attached another PDF Ã¢â¬â this part is from that article) According to what we see, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not ethical to lie in a negotiation, but according to research 28% of negotiators lie about a common interest issue during negotiations, while another study found that 100% of negotiations either failed to reveal a problem or actively lied about it during negotiations if they were not directly asked about the issue. Therefore we have an issue to recognize, when is a lie a lie? Some argue, when exaggerating, downplaying negatives, ignoring flaws, or saying Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ we are lying, but today most businessmen look at this, not as unethical practices, but rather as indicators that a negotiator is Strong, Smart, or Savvy. (Robbins, 2005) When we look at this scenario, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t agree that Dr. ShermanÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is ethical; during the negotiation process he was indicating a trustworthy long term relationship towards BMS and indirectly influencing BMS to take certain actions emotionally (for example : carrying out the negotiation at certain times without attorneys ). However in the meanwhile he gets ready to launch the product, which clearly explains the unethical behaviour and his attempt to misguide BMS. Further, another factor to be noted at the same time is if we want to survive in this highly competitive world, we have to be SMART enough to be professional and BMS being the initiator to the negotiation, should have known exactly what they signed. BMS being a large organisation, having the capacity, should have done their ground work prior going for the negotiations. Further, they could have appointed a negotiation panel rather than a one person, which would have increased the chances of winning. The question arisen is why BMSÃ¢â¬â¢s industry knowledge and experience didnÃ¢â¬â¢t warn them about the FTC decision. This clearly explains poor preparation and their underestimation of Dr ShermanÃ¢â¬â¢s negotiation tactics. We believe, Dr Sherman was being technically correct, that does not justify his behaviour as ethical. The question to argue is the acceptability of the tactics used by Dr Sherman in improving his chances of winning. We believe that winning a business negotiation is important, but winning by deceiving the other party is unethical. 3. 3 Q3) What does this incident tell you about the role of deception in negotiation? Ã¢â¬ËDeception' is the use of false arguments that leads the other person to an incorrect conclusion. We can see these types of scenarios every day in business world, because when doing these types of important negotiations, we have to make sure, that we have our goals in the sight and work towards achieving it with a well planned process, without getting carried over with emotional bonds or friendships. The BMS vs Apotex negotiation shows misrepresentation occurring in a negotiation, where a person deliberately takes a position on something which is not true in some way. Dr. Sherman deliberately misleads BMS showing them that, he is carrying out negotiations in order to come to a conclusive decision of delaying the launch of the generic product. However, while negotiations are being carried out, Dr Sherman plans to market and launch the generic product deceptively. By use of false arguments and providing not rue information, Dr Sherman misguides the other party in negotiation for a settlement offer. While showing an objective of achieving a Ã¢â¬Å"Win Ã¢â¬â WinÃ¢â¬ solution, indicating a trustworthy relationship (which leads the executive of BMS, Bodnar keeping their attorneys out of the discussion in many instances during the negotiation process). Further Dr Sherman including a clause in the deal that would require BMS to pay Apotex $60 Million if FTC rejects the deal, believ ing that FTC would, further explains the deception in this negotiation process. A point to be noted is certain practices carried out by BMS was not professional (example Bodnar keeping the attorneys out of the negotiation) which might lead to further deception. BMS objective was to create a favorable position for themselves by trying to make Dr. Sherman agree to their conditions. Deception plays a major role in this negotiation process. Even though BMS and Apotex entered into negotiation with an objective of coming into a conclusive decision of delaying the launch and the settlement offer. However, the outcome of the negotiation was totally dependant on the deception played by the people involved in the negotiation and the negotiation process had a less impact on the final outcome. 4. 0 Conclusion In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s context, negotiation plays a vital role in any business organization and its challenges are growing. Every organization has their own goals to achieve, therefore it's important to discuss and resolve conflicts arising by divergent goals. Negotiations are often complex, hence always demand preparation. Lack of preparation and not following a proper process will result in adverse and unexpected results. We can clearly see in the above analyzed Apotax vs BMS case, how important is to pay attention and how well we have to know the rules to play well in the field of negotiation, because even a small mistake can change the end result to a greater extend. We can see lot of similarities between this case and the story David vs. Goliath. As we know David was just a lad, representing the Israeli army and was confronted by a giant Goliath, representing the Philistine army. David managed to strategically defeat and destroy the giant Goliath. When relating the case and the story, Apotex (David) was approached by a corporate giant Ã¢â¬â BMS (Goliath) to delay the launch of a competitive substitute. Goliath attempted to negotiate an agreement to hold back competition in the market. To be successful, David had to not only get their product into the market, but also to outnumber the giant. This deal brought a huge win for David, because he was able to examine the issues and identify the opportunities he could gain from this negotiation and also he always had a clear goal and a vision to reach it. So in the end, David successfully launched Plavix generic product and capitalized on the downfall of Goliath to build Apotex's market share. In the above case, Goliath (BMS) forgot that they were involved in a business negation, and got carried away with emotions and wanted to have a long term business relationship with David (Apotex), which David used to his advantage. As professional business people we should always predict the worst possible outcome as well, before getting into this type of an immense business deal which involves lot of money, market share and specially reputation. Which affects the business bottom line and in turn risking stake holder funds or returns) MBS was over confident in going to the negotiations, because they thought they are a large company, as we see size does not matter, itÃ¢â¬â¢s what strategies you use to negotiate and you attentions to details and how well you prepare, that matters. BMS had the resources to win the negotiation, but was not prepare d to use them effectively and efficiently, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where they lost. Before getting in to a negotiation, we have to look at all of the implications of a deal, both for the oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and the related party. To be successful, a deal has to make a Ã¢â¬ËWin Ã¢â¬â WinÃ¢â¬â¢ situation to the both the parties. But here, Goliath never considered about the economic reality, planning or preparing a negotiation agenda and also entered to the negotiation processes even without carrying out a proper background research. Today, we all go through negotiation in day-to-day life, because it has become a technicality which we use in a daily basis. So, when it comes to these types of immense deals, we have to make sure we follow a proper negotiation process which involves major steps of negotiation such as, preparation and planning, definition of ground rules, clarification and justification, bargaining and problem solving, closure and implementation. And also at the same time we should ensure that we make no mistake on our way forward achieving our objective. Further a factor which needs to be kept in our mind throughout our negotiation process is to achieve our goal in an ethical manner making sure we keep no space for others to deceive us. Ã¢â¬â END OF REPORT Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â
Friday, August 16, 2019
Compare and Contrast Music in the Late 90s and 2000s As all of us know, music is the universal language. It is the art of expressing and interpreting an opinion or expression through the creation of sound; and it certainly has histories of many centuries and periods since the existence of human. The question is- would you consider music as a necessity in your daily life? Well, I would easily agree to it; with more quotes popping up recently that are related to music, such as, Ã¢â¬ËNo Music, No LifeÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËMusic is the Essence of LifeÃ¢â¬â¢.These quotes never fail to prove how strongly music influences in all our daily lives. However, music is created very uniquely and differently in every century and here we are now, to compare and contrast between music in the late 90s and in the late 2000s, in terms of the style, the presentation, and the genres. From J. S. Bach, to W. A. Mozart, to Ludwig Van Beethoven, to Claude Debussy, to Scott Joplin, to Miles Davis, to The Be atles, and then to the current Justin Bieber; these people are to be said as the Ã¢â¬ËiconÃ¢â¬â¢ of their century.Each of them showed progression of music along the century; portraying individualistic in music of the century. As for music in the late 90s and 2000s, contrasts in their musical style and elements have been clearly shown through their music. Judging by the music in the late 90s music, musical instruments used seemed to be more original in the sense of its sound and timbre produced compared to the more technology infused music in the 2000s.This creates a huge contrast in both musical style as the sources of the sound produced is very much differ from each other. Besides that, the song lyric in the late 90s music can be judged as more meaningful compared to the 2000s- more insightful lyrics were incorporated in the 90s with more decent vocabulary compared to the more trendy lyrics style in 2000s with more foulness and wildness usage of vocabulary in expressing a music .This clearly shows the influences of generation in the past and in the present that indirectly influence their musical style in music of the century. Next, how do we audience perceive a kind of music? This is a general question with a general answer; which is presentation of the music itself. A presentation of the music is affected mainly by its outlook- recording. In the 90s, the quality of the music recording seemed to be not as excellent as the ones in 2000s; due to the progression of technology at that period.However, music in the late 90s provides and instills good vibes and awareness of quality music into the society with its positively contented music compared to music in the 2000s which concentrated more on catchy and trendy music videos for publication to attract more audiences while neglecting the education of music towards the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s mind- videos are recorded with more sexual and violent actions incorporated are indeed deluding and corrupting the generation of the century.This shows how a presentation of a music recording affects the perception of the audiences towards the music in the late 90s and the 2000s. Last but not least, technology does play a critical role in music. Evidence could be seen with the increment of music genre that is well equipped with technology influences, especially through the music progress from the 90s to the 2000s.In the 90s, the music produced are played with more authentic musical instruments, such as piano/keyboard, drums, guitars, and etc; while in the 2000s, the music are more technology based with frequent usage of synthesizer which is capable of switching to many types of instrumentsÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds and even have a function to play the drum beats in the background while you play the synthesizer, thus replacing the role of few musical instruments.The dominance of contrast between music in the 90s and the 2000s is clearly seen with the genre of music the century focused on, which is pop/rap/rock music in t he 90s and trance/techno/rock metal music in 2000s which obviously prove the influences of technology in music of 2000s. Music is deeply engaged in our daily lives without any doubts, whether we are in the 90s or the 2000s.There is no Ã¢â¬ËbetterÃ¢â¬â¢ music through comparison of music from different era. It is purely based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences and understanding towards it. Music from the late 90s and the 2000s has strongly showed the musical style of their own with the contrasts found in their music, as stated above. Let us just embrace and appreciate music as it is instead of holding grudges towards them! Reference http://www. thepeoplehistory. com/90smusic. html