Monday, September 30, 2019
How stereotypical are the representations of Gender in my chosen texts? My chosen texts are Ã¢â¬ËThe InbetweenersÃ¢â¬â¢ , Ã¢â¬ËX FactorÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËBBC NewsÃ¢â¬â¢. All three texts represent gender in different ways yet I wouldnt say that any of them truly represent both genders in stereotypical ways. In Ã¢â¬ËThe InbetweenersÃ¢â¬â¢ the main characters are portrayed in a very stereotypical way at first glance, they are boystrous and objectify women in the crude way in which they speak about them. Yet when you look deeper into their characters you realise that they are not typical at all. The females in the show are typical in a sense that they are pretty, well dressed and are purely there for the Ã¢â¬Å"male gaze.Ã¢â¬ It is this male gaze that ultimately makes them more powerful than the males in the series as they have the power to either sleep with, or not sleep with the males which takes all control away from the men which is not a typical trait. When you think of a typical male in tv they are strong, handsome and in control, this is not always evident in Ã¢â¬ËThe InbetweenersÃ¢â¬â¢ which supports the masculinity in crisis theory which states that males are no longer the dominant sex in modern society. Women may be objectified still but they use their sex appeal to there advantage and get their own way leaving the males powerless. You do how ever have the very typical character of Jays dad which is a hyperbolic example of a male as he passes gas, swears and acts in a completely innaproriate way for the comedic value. The Ã¢â¬ËX FactorÃ¢â¬â¢ has a very contrasting representation of gender. In one way the male characters are very stereotypical as they have the power to say yes or no to the acts as judges. Males are stereotypically known for being in a position of power so this is a typical representation. Yet you have Dermot OÃ¢â¬â¢leary who is very masculine in his appearance yet is very caring and sympathetic for the contestants. This is not typical as males arent usually shown to have a caring side or emotions as that is left for the women. This again supports the theory of masculinity in crisis. The Female Judges do not have a very typical representation. They are in a position of authority and power and to an extent in the new series do have more power than the male judges as they are more forceful and get their point across better. This is not typically the way women are represented fitting into the theory of Masculinity in crisis. The BBC news is very much like the Ã¢â¬ËX FactorÃ¢â¬â¢. When the males are the anchors they are in a position of power and knowledge which is a typical representation. They appear to the nation as a pillar of knowledge and the public give them a vast amount of respect which is typical of the representation of men. When the women are anchors they too are looked upon as a pillar of knowledge and are given the same respect which does not fit into the typical representation of a female.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In the essay Ã¢â¬Å"College Is a Waste of Time and Money,Ã¢â¬ Caroline Bird argues that college is a complete waste of time and money for people. She argues that most students are unhappy and unsatisfied with attending college. She believes that they go to college because it has become the thing to do or because of getting pressure from their parents or societies. Furthermore, she thinks that college is not a good financial investment because career financial success depends on other factors. She believes that people gain true knowledge and skill while working in real jobs and not in college. Bird believes that college has to be judged not by what other people think is good for the students, but how good it feels to the students themselves. To some college may be a reason to avoid adult responsibilities, gain independence or avoid intolerable home situations, but to others college is an institution offering higher levels of educational purpose that will help them succeed in their careers later on with multiple benefits. College can be financially expensive. Since it is very costly, many believe it is better to just get a job straight out of high school, not take any student loans, and start to save for your retirement right away. Though colleges have gotten more expensive, not all college graduates find high paying jobs. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"College Costs Up, Little Debt Help For Occupy Wall Streeters,Ã¢â¬ it states that Ã¢â¬Å"colleges and universities continue to raise tuition far faster than inflation and churn out ever more indebted graduates, two reports released by The College Board today show. With states struggling to balance their budgets, the sharpest tuition increases this year were at public colleges; at four year state schools in-state tuitionÃ¢â¬ ¦ and despite the college expenses, college graduates arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to find a good paying jobÃ¢â¬ (Forbes). Finding a well paying job right after graduation may be hard during these tough circumstances, but that does not mean people should believe that college was useless to them just because they can not find an appropriate job for themselves at that moment. People must be determined, have good skills and a strong will in order to achieve a high paying job. Many people do not go to college because of all the expenses. Beside the tuition fees, there are many other expenses to consider. ManyÃ private colleges publish a total cost of attendance of over $50,000 per year and around $15,000 of this amount is for room and board. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"College Cost CrunchÃ¢â¬ it states that Ã¢â¬Å"The College Board reports that while the published rates for private college tuition and fees are in the range of $35,000, nearly half of all full-time undergraduate students attend a four-year college with published charges of less than $9,000 per year in tuition and fees. And most students do not pay the published rate. On average, public four-year colleges charge $7,605 per year for in-state students, and the average charge for 2-year colleges is $2,713. For lower income students, the costs are typically even less, and there are many options for financing the cost of college. Federal Pell grants are available up to $5,550 per year, and many states provide additional grants of $1,500-$2,500 per yearÃ¢â¬ (Forbes). People believe that college is very expensive, but if they are able to do the right research and apply themselves for all these loans, grants and scholarship then this will reduce their tuition fees. It is very important for people to look at all their options carefully before making a decision that will have an impact on their career. The value of a college degree or certificate is very important today. The money and time people spend on college matters. College education is universally viewed as such a great investment that the cost and its return on investment are beneficial towards future careers. The impact of getting a job can be very difficult. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, getting a job is pretty tough, and it is a lot tougher for those without a post-secondary education. The chances of getting a job without a post-secondary degree or certificate are very few. According to the U.S Dept. of Labor the over all unemployment rate is 9.1%. The rate of people with only a high school diploma is a little bit higher at 9.5%. But college graduates have an unemployment rate at only 4.5%. Unemployment for ages 18-25 with only a high school diploma is currently over 50%, but the jobless rate for those under 25 with a college degree is only 8%. It is very hard to argue that skipping college to start working early is a practical financial alternative when over half of the young people out of high school are unemployed. The benefits of college go beyond creating improved career choices. The average pay for a job with a college degree earns almost twice the average for those with a high school diploma. People with higher education will have aÃ lifetime work of $800,000 more in wages. The jobs available to those with a post-secondary education are more interesting because they have more mobility between jobs and they have more advancement opportunities within companies. In other words, a college degree or certificate will greatly enhance the ability to get a job people will enjoy. In addition to actually liking that job and getting paid more for it, they have benefits including more leisure time, more opportunities, better health, less dependence on government services, and having children that are far more likely to be successful in school. Of course, there will always be exceptions of highly successful entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Michael Dell, and Steve Jobs who were very successful without completing college, but most of CEOs in America have a college degree. In her essay, Bird believes that students should go to college because they want to themselves, not because someone pressured them in to it. The students should have an inside view of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s good for them. If they feel college is not necessarily good for them, then people can not expect them to go through with it. They need to set their own goals in life whether it be getting an education or getting a job right after high school. Everyone should be able to make decisions for them self. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Is College worth It?,Ã¢â¬ it states that Ã¢â¬Å"the main purpose of a college education is to teach work-related skills and knowledge, and it is to help a student grow personally and intellectually. College graduates place more emphasis on intellectual growth; those who are not college graduates place more emphasis on career preparationÃ¢â¬ (Pewresearch) Though college may seem pointless to others, it actually helps students grow intellectually while building new skills that prepares them for their careers. College is definitely a good investment. Despite its expensive cost, people should not make any excuses because there are so many ways and opportunities to reduce the tuition fees. The money students invest in going to college will come back in multiples when they land a higher paying job. College graduates with a degree will always have a secure future financially. Aside from the financial benefits of going to college, the education students receive and the experience they gain from going to college will make them a better rounded person. It not only helps students grow intellectually, but it helps them mature as a person. It strengthens their skills, builds confidence and prepares them for a career in the realÃ world. Those who believe going to college is a waste of time and money should really consider the benefits and values of having a college degree, unless of course if they are a true genius like Bill Gates, then by all means go for the American Dream! Work Cited Novack, Janet. Ã¢â¬Å"College Costs Up, Little Debt Help For Occupy Wall Streeters.Ã¢â¬ Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 26 Oct. 2011. Web. 15 July 2012. . Novack, Janet. Ã¢â¬Å"College Cost Crunch.Ã¢â¬ Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 14 July 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Is College Worth It?Ã¢â¬ Pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center, 15 May 2011. Web. 14 July 2012. . Caroline Bird. Ã¢â¬Å"College is a Waste of Time and Money.Ã¢â¬ The Norton Reader.1975
Saturday, September 28, 2019
He contends that because of their lack of knowledge of the actual damage that the force of the explosion would cause, that American politicians including President Truman made a decision based on certain assumptions. Now to address the query, was the assault on Japan with atomic bombs necessary? Samuel J. Walker had always been intrigued by the history surrounding the decision to assail Japan with the use of the atomic bombs. He was so fascinated that he made it a personal assignment to conduct research on the issue in his own time. Walker did not do so as part of his obligation as the historian for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. His research reveals that President Truman came into presidency without any absolute knowledge of what was occurring on the part of the United States in the war effort. In addition, the Manhattan Project (the title given to the engineering team that was developing the atomic bomb by Roosevelt) was almost a complete enigma to Truman when he entered his term as President (13). As President, Truman was concerned with ending the war as soon as possible in order to reduce the loss of American troops. It is logical to conclude that any leader would be concerned with the sacrifice of life affecting their country; however, abiding by moral principles must also be considered. The bomb was considered by the American government to be the quickest and most effective way to end the war at the time, in addition to lowering the cost of American lives (36). The reason that the atomic bomb was considered to be very effective was because it had the capability to wipe out an entire city, including troops, men, women, and children. Would an act of this capacity be considered as moral? Scholars dispute the morality of TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, some arguing it was warranted by JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s aggression and refusal to surrender, and other scholars suggesting that the assaults were the moral equivalent of the Nazi holocaust (109). I postulate that to annihilate an entire city of people in one fell swoop is something that neither man nor nation should be able to decide, even if they conceive the other party to be deserving of such a punishment in retribution for their actions. In addition to the desire to end the war and thus the casualties to the American troops, Truman had other reasons for considering the approval of the atomic attacks. Truman was enlightened by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson in a meeting on April 25, 1945 on the capability of the bomb, and the enormous expense incurred in developing it. This was one reason that TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion was to use the bomb against Japan, as there had to be a justifiable explanation for the expense incurred. Also, if he had not employed the use of the atomic bomb, he would not be able to justify to the American people why he had chosen not to do so, as there were so many American lives lost. It was alleged after the atomic assaults on Japan the decision to carry out the attacks was made in order to prevent as many as 500,000 to 1 million American casualties or deaths. However, there has been no proof provided that Truman received any information that an invasion on Japan would cause that number of casualties (39). Learning that the presentation of the number of estimated casualties was skewed to ensure a favourable opinion from the majority of the American public solidifies my opinion that the atomic assaults were unnecessary. If they had been necessary, why not be forthcoming about the lesser estimation of casualties? Yet another reason that Truman and his cabinet decided to attack is that American relations with the Soviet Union during that time were becoming strained. It was important to the American government to strengthening the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ ties to the Soviet Union. The desire for amicable relations with the Soviet Union was a factor in the conclusion to use the bombs against Japan (95). At the time, the Soviet Union was preparing to declare war against Japan, and joining them or preceding them in the war would apparently strengthen the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States. The opinion was that the United States was a stronger power and that the Soviet Union would not be able to defeat Japan without U. S. intervention (41). However, with the Soviet Union and the United States working together, Japan would most likely be defeated in a short amount of time, making the atomic assaults on Japan even more unnecessary. Regardless of the option to partner with the Soviet Union, the United States decided to act alone in their attacks. Finally, the most pressing reason that the government and Truman argued that they had to use the bombs was the sentiment of outrage that the American public harboured over the attack on Pearl Harbour and their resulting fury if something had not been done in retaliation to that horrific event (20). In all honesty the American public would have been assuaged with a victory no matter the means by which it was achieved. The American government was fully aware of the fact that there would be civilian casualties, in addition to the soldiers and sailors of Japan (62). Preservation of the lives of the innocent is of the utmost importance. The American government had pronounced that there would be hundreds of thousands of American lives saved due to the bombings, but later statements by Truman stated the numbers to be in the Ã¢â¬Å"thousandsÃ¢â¬ , which coincided with actual estimates from the military in the summer of 1945 (93). Truman and the government opted to save thousands of American soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, and kill hundreds of thousands of innocent Japanese men, women and children. In addition to all of the reasons the American government had for dropping the bombs on Japan, they came to the conclusion that there were not any viable reasons presented against doing the atomic assaults which outweighed the reasons in favour of dropping them. However, there were other options for the American government to proceed with in order to secure a victory. There was a planned invasion on Kyushu as well as continued aerial bombings and blockades (36). It is understandable that the American government would want to appease the American public, secure relations with the Soviet Union, justify the expense of developing the bomb, and reduce the cost of American lives, however; the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was horrendous and morally detestable. The sheer volume of innocent lives lost due to the bombs, as well as the agony caused by the radioactive material, was most assuredly not justified. There would have definitely been many more American troops lost if the bombs were not dropped, but I do not agree that it justifies killing innocent men, women, and children on such a large scale. I particularly enjoyed the way that Walker states it -Ã¢â¬Å"The fundamental question that has triggered debate about Trumans decision since shortly after the end of World War II is, Was the bomb necessary? In view of the evidence now available, the answer is yes . . . and no. Yes, the bomb was necessary to end the war at the earliest possible moment. And yes, the bomb was necessary to save the lives of American troops, perhaps numbering in the several thousands. But no, the bomb was probably not necessary to end the war within a fairly short time without an invasion of Japan. And no, the bomb was not necessary to save the lives ofÃ hundredsÃ of thousands of American troopsÃ¢â¬ (97). Bibliography Walker, Samuel J. Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the use of atomic bombs against Japan. 1997. eBook.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Taxation portfolio - Assignment Example It is due to this reason that students without business background often get intimidated whenever they embark of taxation as a course to study. Nonetheless, it is important to understand taxation concepts and how they impact on businesses as they prepare to enter professional practice. Globalization has forced governments to acknowledge the significance of small businesses in the present competitive markets. In this regard, governments have formulated regulations to implement numerous taxes with a view of maximizing revenue collection. Globally, small and medium enterprises are known for their contribution to economic growth, entrepreneurship and employment creation. Basically, small businesses are known universally as engines for economic growth. This paper focuses on the tax aspects of a small-scale wine business in Australia and also tax implications of individual employees. Taxation consequences This is because they stimulate economic growth and therefore, play a critical role in wealth creation. In Australia, small and medium enterprises account for 37% of economic production and employ roughly 3.7 million people. Nevertheless, similar to other small and medium enterprises across the globe, compliance with government regulations heavily impacts on their operations. This is because SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s bear significant costs of compliance cost relative to their size. According to Hasseldine and Anold, government regulations, in particular, tax compliances are a major issue for SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s (370). For instance, following intense political debate, the Australian government introduced good and services tax (GST) which was one of the significant tax reform policies. This was an outrage on the economic impact of GST to SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s starting with start-up taxation costs. Compliance costs as defined by Kumar, are those costs incurred by businesses in meeting the requirements in order to comply with a given tax structure besides payment of tax itself (35). Such costs inclu de legal and other professional fees, acquisition costs among others. GST compliance costs popularly known as commencement costs are usually incurred by the business in preparation to comply with GST legislation. According to National Audit Office, SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s forms the large component of the informal sector and are known to evade tax (44). Pope and Fernandez observed that complex tax registration, and high tax rates are the main contributing factors to problems experienced by SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s in the Australian tax system (15). Value-Added Tax Act provides that Australian economy cannot compete effectively with other world economies when SMEs continues operating in an informal sector (9). In this vein, it is therefore, paramount to reduce the informal sector by putting in place a simplified tax system. Australian government acknowledges the significance of SMEs to the economy and has been providing support to entities falling under this group by way of reducing tax and tax compliance b urden. In addition, the government has also simplified reporting requirements and record keeping. For instance, in 2006 budget, the Australian government passed to reduce taxes on SMEs by AUS$ 435 million over the following four years. As such, SMEs continued to receive more assistance by aligning thresholds, streamlining definitions and reducing tax complexity and compliance costs. SMEs are required by law to maintain record of their sales, which includes income earned excluding GST. Tax compliance and administration
Thursday, September 26, 2019
1.Its not just about the fuel - The challenges of sustainability facing the car industry - Essay Example Governments are offering incentives in order to propagate sustainability goals. However, there has been a shift towards outsourcing manufacturing to developing economies from developed ones. This implies that competition is rife in the automobile industry. Additionally, this model stretches the supply chain across geographies, thus increasing greenhouse gas emissions in production. Sustainability goals may be perceived negatively by auto investors, who may think of them as additional expenditures. Engineering skills are dwindling in the developed world with several innovation decisions being made in outsourcing nations; regrettably, most are not committed to sustainability. Tax regimes and complex human resource systems may be a force to reckon with in the sustainability agenda. Small and medium enterprises are also involved in the supply chain, especially those which provide small automotive parts. Some of them find it difficult to access finance for their work. Incentives for research and development especially with regard to collaboration with other parties may be difficult. Certain governments have led the way in supporting automobile manufacturers and consumers in making sustainable car choices. Consumers are also learning about their role in enhancing intelligent mobility, as environmental concerns do not just end at manufacturing. Several manufacturers are now prioritising environmental issues in production. A number of them want to improve their internal combustion engines. This ensures that waste recovery takes place in production. Additionally, they facilitate the integration of electric machines and combustion engines, thus minimising utility. Environmental issues have also led to innovation in enhancing the energy storage of automobiles and the material production of those items. Lightweight manufacture of products is becoming a key manufacturing goal. However, the
Week 4 - Essay Example ected is accurate, all the team members should evaluate the operational descriptions of the data and ensure they are all correct, can be easily understood and completed. Therefore, awareness of the reliability and validity of the data collection tool used in quantitative research project is vital (Joint Commission Resources, Inc., 2008). Ensuring that the data collection tool is accurate is very crucial in qualitative research. Using consistent data collection tools increases the validity and consistency of the data collection. For example, a different person should collect the same data one has obtained at a different time. One cannot assume the blood pressure measurements taken are all accurate unless he or she is certain that the sphygmomanometers are often calibrated and all the doctors and nurses are well trained to provide best practice on taking blood pressures. A well cross-examined questionnaire will ensure that there are no shortcomings that lead to the collection of unreliable data. One is advised that if he or she cannot get a reliable collection tool, he should ensure that they carry out a pilot test first to avoid the difficulties. To improve on the reliability of data collection, training should be undertaken to all those who are providing data in correct procedures of data entry. Collecting unreliabl e data will lead to wrong results of the qualitative research (Chambers & Wakley, 2005). Cultural background is important in ensuring that one gets the information that one requires. When interviewing Ms. Li some of the cultural considerations that are important to remember include the preference of Asian Americans to herbal medicine, intimate partner violence or abuse among Asian Americans and the belief that the human body is whole and that each part is intimately connected, therefore when sick the whole body should be treated. The abuse assessment screen refers to a screening tool that is used to evaluate indications of abuse or violence against
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Reading response - Essay Example Bridal understands that respect is invaluable and someone who wants to succeed must accept the consequences of disrespect. She tells Fragrance, Ã¢â¬Å"A tutor for a day is a father for a lifetimeÃ¢â¬ (Mair 226). This shows how much she believes and respects ChÃ¢â¬â¢en. It is not always wrong to question authority or do things differently. Bridal presents to ChÃ¢â¬â¢en a set of stationery that ChÃ¢â¬â¢en had never seen and a portrait with weeping eyes (Mair 225). When ChÃ¢â¬â¢en dismisses them, Bridal accepts it and uses what ChÃ¢â¬â¢en approves. As a result of following her tutorÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions, she become so good at writing that ChÃ¢â¬â¢en admitted that he had never seen such good writing. I personally believe that taking corrections positively is one way of progressing in life. This scene thus corresponds with my belief. The schoolroom scene is very entertaining. There is adequate use of stylistic devices such as rhyme that give it a poetic feel (Mair 223). In addition, it emphasizes the need for mutual a working relationship between people in authority and those under them, based on trust and
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Criminological Theory and Sanctions - Essay Example Perceived net benefit, therefore, motivates a criminal behavior. Routine activities theory further explains interaction of motivation from perceived net benefits with presence of a vulnerable target and absence of guidance. Occurrence of a crime within these frameworks would therefore define a normal criminal activity and support normal sanction codes but not an occurrence outside frameworks, which should require a different consideration in determining a sanction. A criminal activity in which perceived cost is far above perceived benefits or one that is conducted in full presence of a guardian and on non-vulnerable target identifies factors that may require lesser sanctions. This is because of possible biological, social, and psychological complications into criminal behavior that requires different approaches to prevention of criminal activities based on causes. Remedying behavior caused by genetic problems, for example, require biological initiatives that are not the same for init iatives for social or psychological dependent behavior (Bryant 144-
Monday, September 23, 2019
Famous people, such as politicians and film stars - Essay Example Full time follow up of politicians and film stars by the media not only ruins the personal and social life of such famous people, but also speaks bad of the role of media in the society. The fight news of famous Bollywood couple Aishwarya Rai and Abhishek Bachchan is one potential example of the disregard of ethics by media as the news could have destroyed their personal life. It was reported by the media that Aishwarya Rai and Abhishek Bachchan had had exchange of harsh words at the recently held IIFA awards function. Media reported that Abhishek Bachchan was trying to convince Aishwarya Rai not to speak too loud and indecently at the awards, while Aishwarya Rai was not listening to him. Later, Mr. Bachchan asked the security to lock his wife up in a room. Now Aishwarya Rai happens to be the former Miss World (Yousaf). Public expects her to behave decently. However, the news offered a serious blow to her public image, though no body was really sure whether it was Aishwarya RaiÃ¢â¬â ¢s loud tone that started all the melodrama at the outset. MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Mrs. Bachchan as an inconsiderate and disrespectful wife was by no means, rational. What reporters do to film stars is done by the journalists to politicians. This may also be one potential cause of the underrated performance of such politicians and celebrities. Every human being requires freedom, which is subdued by camera.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Beauty Is a Combination of Qualities Essay Beauty is a combination of qualities that give pleasure to the senses. It is an inborn instinct in human to appreciate beauty. Beauty both of nature and of human form have been a powerful attraction for men and women of all times and climes. A beautiful object fills the heart with joy and delight. The soul gets stirred by the external view of beauty. Man has developed an eye for beauty right from the Stone Age. The earliest cave-paintings depicting animals and trees prove the cavemans love for beauty. Artistic creations are mans attempts to depict the joy created by beauty. A person may see a beautiful thing for a short duration but its memory lasts for a long time. Man cherishes the beautiful moments in life. The imagination helps to revive and relive the happy moments spent in the company of beautiful things. A colorful butterfly seen for five minutes gives instant delight for the same time, but if that scene is recaptured twenty, the joy becomes twenty fold. Beauty abounds in nature. The sunrise, the sunset, the moon, the starts, the rainbow and the seasons delight the senses. Beautiful sight and sounds of nature provide pleasure to man. The rivers, the forests, the green mountains, the snow-capped peaks and the flowers are beautiful objects of nature. They leave an impression on the mind of man. Recollection of this impression becomes a constant source of joy. Beautiful objects are a source of inspiration for poets to compose poetry. Poets are more moved by beautiful sights than people of ordinary imagination. Keats was a great lover of beauty in all its varied forms. In most of his poems, Keats appreciate different forms of beauty. The dancing daffodils seen by Wordsworth during his travel left a mark in his memory. He composed a poem on daffodils after four years of that visit but he felt the same delight, which reflected in the poem. This proves that any aspect of beauty leaves and ever-lasting impact on human heart and soul. The great Sanskrit poet Kalidas has also graphically described in his poem Kumar Sambhav, the beauty of the forest blooming all round with the touch of spring. Beautiful sights influence the painter to draw the same. His paintings are a poetry of colors which depicts nature as it is on the canvas. A painter always remains in search of a place where he could find ay form of beauty whether of nature or human to adorn his canvas with everlasting charm of beauty. A human face painted by a master painter will not only show the physical structure in its exact form but also reveal the emotion of the subject. The paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Hogarth, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Nand Lal Bose, M.F Hussain an others are a feast for the eyes and the mind. What is true of poets and painters is equally true of sculptors, architects and musicians. They derive pleasure by creation of beauty. Their beautiful works are appreciated by all. A musician creates beauty by the harmonious blending of various notes and tunes. This harmony is a source of pleasure for the listeners. The music of Tansen, Baiju Dawra, Ustad Faiz Khan, Ustad Amjad Ali Khan, R.D Drman and others have been widely appreciated and applauded. Beauty is present every where like nature, literature, sculpture, architecture etc. Cement, stone, wood, brick all these things have no shape and beauty but when they are used artistically by the architect, they take the form a beautiful building. A number of historical building all over the world is a great world. Taj Mahal in India, Eiffel Tower in Paris, Opera House in Australia, The Great wall of China, are some of the buildings which are famous for their beauty. Spiritual beauty is something nobler and higher than physical beauty. It is related to the beauty of the spirit and the soul. Spiritual beauty touches or soul. The pleasure and joy, we derive from it is sublime. Spiritual beauty is accompanied by truth and goodness- Satyam Shivam Sundaram as expressed by sage. We find a similar view in Keats poem, when he says, Beauty is truth, truth beauty. Keats regards spiritual beauty as the source of true joy. Beauty according to Shelly is eternal. An object of nature may decay and man may die, yet both survive in thought, for beauty never dies. Beautiful objects of nature also uplift the sprit if a pessimist. One takes a break from the environment of big cities and flocks to hill stations. The beautiful sights of nature in the hill stations refresher the mind. They influence a person to perform his task more efficiently then before. Beauty of nature has a soothing effect in it. In one of his poems, Shelly said that even death will be peaceful for him while watching the beautiful aspects of nature. Beauty, whether physical or spiritual always gives us joy. There is harmony in the beautiful objects. This harmony is the attribute of the soul. Beauty links man with eternity. A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept Analysis Jin Thai, Chong In this assignment, the notion of Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting is being analysed critically. The definition of the term, created by John Elkington, as well as its concept and general principles (social, environment and economic lines) are discussed in this report. Representations of TBL in the Business and Government Organisations sectors are further explored with its five different interpretations: Wait and see, Packaging information for community right to know, stakeholder alignment, endorsing core principles, and holistic cultural perspective. The relationship between sustainable development and TBL is discussed in the report by considering the environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability, with a backing example of the TBL Toolkit and the The Capital Works Sustainability Statement practiced in the city of Melbourne. The application of TBL in sustainable construction and its indicators of social and environmental, and economic performance us ed in the construction sector are also discussed in the report. Lastly, a case study has been done on Enviro-Cottage constructed in Spring Hill, Brisbane. The project has addressed TBL reporting considering the sustainable development and construction aspects. TABLE OF CONTENTS (Jump to) Introduction Principles of Triple Bottom Line Sustainable development Application ofÃ TBL in sustainable construction Case study: Enviro-CottageÃ ConclusionÃ Introduction Triple bottom line (TBL) reporting is becoming more common across many sectors of society. Although the concept was born out of the corporate and business world to report corporate social responsibility conveniently, it has been embraced by many organisations to give social and environmental agendas more prominence in the face of corporatist globalisation (Price, R n.d.). The term Triple Bottom Line was formed by John Elkington in 1997. Based in UK as a consultant to companies like BO, DuPont and the World Bank, John Elkington has been described by Business Week as a dean of the corporate responsibility movement for three decades (John Elkington 2010). Instead of the usual financial bottom line, Elkington define and expanded the baseline for measuring performance using social, environmental and economic bottom lines (Centre for ISA Information Sheet 7 n.d.). Elkington stated on his book, Cannibals with Forks that: The triple bottom line focuses corporations not just on the economic value they add, but also on the environmental and social value they add and destroy. At its narrowest, the term triple bottom line is used as a framework for measuring and reporting corporate performance against economic, social and environmental parameters (Elkington,, J 1998). Generally, Triple bottom line is an integrated management approach that consists of managing, measuring and publicly reporting performance in business and government sectors (Potts, T 2004). TBL also acts as a medium to discuss issues regarding the organisation and the community. According to A Tool For Measuring, Communicating, And Facilitating Change In Local Governments by Tavis Potts, TBL is a correspondence and process for reporting on sustainability and the results allow for communities to engage in an ongoing discussion. For sustainable organisations this means balancing the needs of the organisation against the environmental, economic and social factors, as depicted in Figure 1 to enhance the quality of life. Business Sector In the business sector, the growing tension between increased social values and conventional forms of value creation has forced consideration of sustainability (including TBL reporting). Pressure has been applied on organisations to be more socially and environmentally responsible in their pursuit of profit (Beilin, R Paine, M, Pryor R 2007). As an example, BP Australia reported that a TBL approach to business provides them with a sustainable competitive advantage and it is also in a good business sense to do so. It demonstrates to stakeholders the integrity of a business or industry, thus it improves its reputation, increases investor confidence and enhances marketing and profit opportunities. Governments Sector Similarly to businesses, local governments have adopted the TBL in response to community concern about issues of environmental sustainability. In the governments sector, the field of organisational accountability has broadened. Government organisations must now consider the wider impacts of their practices on other local, regional, national and even global stakeholders (Beilin, R Paine, M, Pryor R 2007). Growing government interest in corporate social and environmental responsibility is expressed in policy at local, State and Federal levels. TBL reporting has changed the appearance of the role of government in regulating private businesses and industries. Further, TBL has come to demonstrate good public relations in government organisations with its integrated focus on social, environmental and economic outcomes of practice. Principles of Triple Bottom Line The three vital aspects of corporate and government performance are based on Triple Bottom Line are the economic, social and environmental lines. TBL is also interpreted in 5 ways in business and governments sectors. The Economic Bottom Line The economic bottom line is the organisations record of economic performance (revenue and profit) and integrity. Even though the companies make profits in the business, profit is treated as the economic benefit for the enjoyment of the employees and community as a whole within a sustainability framework. The Social or People Bottom Line The social bottom line is the organisations record of social or people performance as it affects employees, consumers, and communities. This also refers to fair, ethical, and beneficial business practices toward employees, community, and country in which a corporation performs its business. The Environmental Bottom Line The environmental bottom line is the organisations record of performance as it considers all the issues related with environmental concerns. The goal of 21stÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã century companies is not only to help protect the environment by producing green or environmentally responsible products but also to have their own sustainable, environmentally-sound business operating practices. Organisations are expected to function in an environmentally responsible approach, through initiatives such as taking steps to reduce their own environmental footprint, consuming less energy and little or no non-renewable resources and producing less waste. Five interpretation of TBL Five broad categories capture the current diverse state of TBL performance measurement and reporting in Australia according to Triple Bottom Line Measurement and Reporting In Australia. The five categories are more to show the diverse business rationales and analysis of community expectations for triple bottom line measuring and reporting (Suggett, D, Goodsir, B 2002). Wait and see Wait and see is the category where organisations are satisfied with their present approaches to communication and accountability. Examples of such companies are Fosters and Woolworths. This may due to the fact that a change is not necessary in their business priorities, as well as a sense of potential benefit as it is still early in their business to use the TBL approach without understanding the directions of the business. Packaging information for community right to know By observing the community right to know attitude and supporting the notion of greater responsibility to the community for their business performance, other organisations make an obligation to their stakeholders to be open and transparent. To meet this commitment, they collect and package internal information or report for external audience. This report shows the values they seek to meet, their performance against those standards and a description of their activities. Examples of companies practising this approach of TBL in environmental reporting are Wesfarmers and Orica. As they continue to collect data, report on and verify approaches, those organisations do not see that a change in approach is required to embrace social or economic scopes. Stakeholder Alignment This approach analyses the relationship between stakeholders expectations and corporate strategy. In order for TBL reporting to derive maximum value, it is necessary that the information reported aligns with business strategy and objectives and accurately reflects the focus of the company activity. This serves to strengthen the significance of companies developing indicators in a structured way that reflects their objectives and the requirements of key stakeholder groups. As the stakeholders could be the shareholders, investors, employees, customers, suppliers, the community and government, organisations practicing this approach will be required to set up new management systems and in a long run is intensive on the business resource. One example is the WMC. WMC continues to expand in this direction and a number of other companies have embarked on the first steps, such as Westpac and ANZ. Endorsing Core Principles A few organisations outline their response to stakeholder expectations into values that guide their business activity: sustainability principles. Examples of organisations are Rio Tinto and Shell. This approach is directed at integrating these core principles into management practices. Holistic Cultural Perspective Organisations in private ownership define their business purpose and their commitment to sustainability values and accountability as a whole. Their business success depends on this cultural perspective. The Body Shop is the often-quoted example and the Co-operative Bank in the United Kingdom. Sustainable Development Sustainability is a pattern of resource use that aims to simultaneously meet human needs and preserve the environment so that these needs can be met not only for the present generation, but also for future generations. Sustainable development ties together the concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges (Sustainable construction gives a competitive edge n.d). Conceptually, sustainable development can be broken down into three constituent parts: Environmental sustainability Economic sustainability Social sustainability Sustainable development is often portrayed as the act of balancing economic, ecological and social concerns, and the TBL is commonly used internationally to prove corporate performance on sustainability and its approach to sustainable development in the corporate world. However, in sustainable development, TBL also concentrates on the external structure of development and excludes the internal structure of development. In other words, TBL also focuses on technological, economic and institutional development while excluding cultural and personal development (Riedy, C 2003). As an example, the City of Melbourne is using TBL approach to accomplish the goal of sustainable development. The city has developed a TBL Toolkit which includes checklists, guidelines, templates and case studies for the application of TBL decision-making and reporting (Triple-Bottom-Line Evaluation Approach Shows Promise for Local Government 2004). Part of this tool is the The Capital Works Sustainability Statement and it is a rating system that recognizes the degree to which a project contributes to the Councils sustainability objectives. The Capital Works tool is being applied to different ways, such as the bidding of capital works, budget approval process, and evaluating criteria against of capital works. Through this TBL approach, councils are able to demonstrate responsibility and transparency in decision making and administration. Moreover, TBL approach in the public sector including local government has helped to develop global standards and procedures in reporting decisions at all levels (Triple-Bottom-Line Evaluation Approach Shows Promise for Local Government 2004). Application ofÃ TBL in Sustainable Construction Construction activities worldwide consume 40 per cent of all raw material exploited globally (Sustainable construction gives a competitive edge n.d.). For this reason, the use of sustainable building materials can help improve the global environment significantly. The public demand for sustainable solutions is growing, and in the years to come, contractors who are able to document sustainable methods will have a strong presence in the market. In order to make construction sustainable, one has to practise TBL in order to consider the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, processing, fabrication, installation, reuse, recycling, and disposal of these materials. It is easy to understand why TBL has received acceptance in sustainable construction. Indicators of social and environmental performance are used to diversify work and practices of construction sector. TBL allows organisations to assess quantitatively and qualitatively how they are achieving their key performance indicators (Triple Bottom Line: A Ticket to the Game Or The Emperors New Clothes? 2005). TBL has been applied to the construction sector in the UK where the phrase Sustainable Construction has been coined. The UK Government is seeking to apply sustainable development practices to the construction industry. Leading construction companies in the UK, USA and Europe now report annually on social and environmental performance as well as financial performance. Jim Lammie, director of Parsons Brinckerhoff in a speech on sustainability of 8 September 2004 said that over 77% of construction companies in the UK had a sustainable development policy to deal with regulation, competitive edge, client policy, enhanced reputation, legal risks and future investments as well as addressing ethical obligations. Lessons from the construction industry overseas have a place for Australian construction companies who want to outperform their counter-parts in a society becoming increasingly aware of such issues. Implementing daily practices to elicit performance under TBL can be as simple as adop ting recycling programs, giving to the workforce through university sponsorship programs and adopting best practice voluntary standards. When a full assessment of practices are made construction players may find that they are already carrying out sustainable practices but are not reaping the reward through reporting their practices to stakeholders. Truly sustainable construction practices may mean assessing projects and work practices with TBL in mind (Triple Bottom Line: A Ticket to The Game Or The Emperors New Clothes? 2005). The triple bottom line concept of sustainable construction could be achieved through the application of sustainable design principles at early stages of planning and construction. By making these decisions earlier, it creates a building which is safer, secure, flexible, comfortable, environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient in the long-run. A sustainable construction project should be designed and constructed to take account of the principles of sustainable design which is to balance the social, environmental and economic aspects (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). The triple bottom line approach to sustainable construction is a balanced integration of design factors that consists of social, environmental and economic sustainability. Social Sustainable buildings are designed for the people considering access, safety, security; it is a design that considers the clients future needs throughout various stages of lives, such as young families, older residents or residents with varying disabilities. Sustainably constructed buildings are safe, easily adaptable to suit a diverse range of needs and comfortable for people with varying abilities at different stages of their lives. This is especially relevant considering the elderly amongst our ageing population (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Socially sustainable construction can also strengthen social networks and allow people of every age and ability to participate in their community throughout their life. An aesthetically pleasing and stimulating built environment will reinforce the sense of well being of residents and people in the local community of the building. Under the social aspect of TBL reporting, the local society and streetscape should also be considere d in order to ensure considerate development, enhancement of the streetscape and the community function (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). Environmental Sustainable construction are resource-efficient by incorporating sustainable and efficient management of water, energy and waste with other features such as passive solar design by considering the orientation, ventilation, insulation, shading and building materials (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Resource efficiency is also related to water efficiency in the building, waste management of materials used during construction, and energy efficiency by practising good passive design and high star-rated green technology appliances and lights. It is also associated with the reduced usage of greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption. Local market for materials should be considered as well (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). Besides that, resource efficiency also means lifestyle benefits for residents of the buildings as the thermal comfort is improved (social sustainability) and affordable running costs for the home (economic sustainability). Economic Economic sustainability of TBL reporting means designs and construction which are more cost-efficient in a long-run, considering the selection of low maintenance materials. Extra expense during construction should be provided for longer term operating cost savings as it is important to obtain the choices of design and material right the first time as it eliminates the need to make additional costly changes to the construction later. Besides that, installation of solar panels or water tanks will also increase the value of the property (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). During the selection of building material, suppliers should consider the materials from local market. It is to optimise costs through reduced transportation expenses to the site (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Sustainable construction could become cost-efficiently over time by improving the design and construction features and the use of low-maintenance materials. Usage of appliances with high energy-star ratings that reduce the ongoing costs of running the home should be encouraged. By practicing sustainable construction, energy and water bills are lowered and potential future modification costs are greatly reduced, thus making the home more adaptable and flexible over its life cycle. Case study: Enviro-Cottage Enviro-Cottage is constructed in Spring Hill, Brisbane. It was built as a workers cottage in the late 1800s. During 2008, the houses were transformed from a traditional Brisbane cottage into a sustainable development for inner-city living. Enviro-Cottage as shown in Figure 2 is not a new, purpose-built house unlike other display homes. It is a renovation project that highlights the simple, technological and the necessary construction methods to help make a home more efficient by using less electricity, water and other resources, while improving how people live in the available space. Some of the ideas are very simple and easy to apply in any home renovation or construction projects to reduce its environmental footprint. Examples of sustainable construction methods used are passive design, thermal mass and solar orientation (Enviro-Cottage n.d.). Other revolutionary sustainable ideas are the installation of solar cell technology, water tank and grey water systems, glass technology, kitchen and laundry appliances, taps and showers, insulation, flooring, paints and other finishes, heating and cooling systems, and energy efficient lighting. The Spring Hill Enviro-Cottage Project has addressed the TBL reporting (Triple bottom line in housing n.d). Examples of the Enviro-Cottage TBL report considerations included in the sustainable development and construction according to Our Brisbane are: Social sustainability Enviro-Cottage is constructed to be multi-purpose. Its multi-use design is suitable for people from different background, such as families, users with disabilities, and elderly people. The cottage is constructed using the local Tuff stone to tie to Spring Hills heritage and preservation of the heritage streetscape Open front aspect to connect with local street life Open design to aid easy internal and external surveillance High security features to all doors and windows with simple and consistent locking systems The set back garage is designed and constructed to de-emphasise the role of the car Addition of two off-street parking options takes two cars off the crowded local street Preservation of the heritage streetscape Environmental sustainability The constructed building maximize the use of passive solar design features, such as implementing natural energy flows, and minimising the scale of overlaid systems lighting, cooling etc. There is no air conditioning or other mechanical heating or cooling systems required in the design. Rainwater is being capture, used, recycled and re-used as much as possible, inclusion of grey water processing system. Generation of required energy needs through onsite photovoltaic system and where possible provision of clean renewable energy back to the community. During construction, environmentally preferred materials are used (Eg. no use of rainforest or old growth forest products). Existing 1800s building are renovated to reduce consumption of new materials Materials with a lifespan equivalent to the projected life of the building are used during construction. Local products and materials are sourced where possible, thus minimising energy used to transport materials. Economic sustainability Enviro-Cottage practises passive solar design and the environmental- friendly products will take future operating costs down to a minimum. Modular design, flexible usage model, and choice of long lifespan materials selected to build the house will minimise any necessities for future renovations, thus decreasing ongoing construction costs. The Enviro-Cottage project has demonstrated sustainable development through TBL reporting and the project signified sustainable living ideas, solution and options which can be part of most constructions even when it is challenged with the many constraints facing such renovations such as council building codes, existing dwelling condition and design, and smaller block sizes. Conclusion In conclusion, the TBL concept demonstrates responsibility to stakeholders in terms of economic, social and environmental impact. The idea behind TBL reporting is sustainable success which will benefit the organisations. Benefits include better reputation and increased confidence, benchmarked performance, increased operational efficiency, stakeholder satisfaction, as well as improved risk management of the business. TBL reports may have different representations in the business and government sectors, and each of the sectors has different interpretation of TBL. TBL reporting is one way organisations can add value to their daily practices of their business. In terms of sustainable development and construction, TBL is the union of the three constituent parts social, environment, and economic. TBL is commonly used to prove corporate performance on sustainability as it covers accountability in an economic, social and environmental sense.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Faust: A Tragedy Ã Webster's Dictionary says that a tragedy is a lamentable, dreadful, or fatal event or affair, or a disaster. This word and the story Faust, by Goethe, go together very well due to the amount of calamities within the tale. For this reason the subtitle "A Tragedy" is appropriate. It is befitting because of Faust's alliance with the Devil, his actions along with the Devil and the fate of two of the main characters at the end of the story. Faust: A Tragedy is very deserving of the subtitle "A Tragedy". It was definitely a tragedy that Faust allied himself with Mephisto. Whenever a person strays from the positive path of the Lord to the side of the Devil it is definitely something very negative. For ages people have been using the phrase, "he sold his soul to the Devil", with no positive connotation. Of course when this phrase was used it was just to say that that person was evil, not that they actually let Satan purchase their soul. That would be ridiculous, correct? Well that is exactly what happened in Faust's case. Due to his own flaw of not being satisfied with life itself, he strayed from the Lord and traded his soul for a higher form of entertainment. "Thinking's done with, for ever so long Learning and knowledge have sickened me....Bring on your miracles..." It is tragic when someone feels that they understand so much, or try to ignore so much to the point where they think that they should give their soul away with no fear of eternal damnation. Faust beli eves or tries to believe that there is no after life and that he can just trade away his life to the most evil being in existence with no repercussions. Falling from God and making the Devil his partner is something that deserves the title "a tragedy". Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã While working with the Devil Faust did a number of evil things, some being quite tragic. It was already bad enough that Faust decided to play games with Mephistopheles, but it was worse when he decided he wanted to draw someone else into his sick deal. Faust, being overwhelmed with lust, felt that he needed to seduce and corrupt a young girl. "Get me that, do you hear, you must!" This is even worse when you consider that it was inevitable that he would succeed with the aid of Satan.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Question 1: Answer each of the following questions in MSWord a) Why is email an important toll in modern communications? Emails are important because itÃ¢â¬â¢s very fast, no need wait for answers, itÃ¢â¬â¢s in no time. It is good choice because itÃ¢â¬â¢s online. You can send text messages, attached file, even you can communicate face to face thatÃ¢â¬â¢s using microphone and web camera. You can use emails in every place that have WiFi. b) What components make up an email message? Email components are recipient address, CC (carbon Copy), subject, editing tools, text editor, and attachment. CC means if you put another people email address in this line they will get email copy as well. Attachment Ã¢â¬â you can add and send files like pictures, sound files, signatures etc. c) What email account should people consider using? There are a lot of email providers. I will show 10 most popular. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Google GMAIL Ã¢â¬ ¢ Microsoft Hotmail Ã¢â¬ ¢ Yahoo Ã¢â¬ ¢ Outlook Ã¢â¬ ¢ GMX Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mail.com Ã¢â¬ ¢ AOL Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inbox.com Ã¢â¬ ¢ Zoho Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lycos mail These emails providers are free and provide much more than just send and receive messages. d) What is good email etiquet...
Effect of Concentration on Osmosis Aim To find out how the concentration of sucrose solution affects the mass of the potato chip left in the solution for one day. Prediction I predict that when the sucrose concentration is low the potato chip will gain mass. This is because there will be a higher sucrose concentration in the potato chip so water will go into the potato from the solution. I predict that when there is a high concentration of sucrose the potato will lose mass. This is because there is a higher concentration of sucrose solution in the solution compared to that in the potato chip so water from the potato will go into the solution to even it out. Osmosis is "the movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane" Osmosis is the movement of water from high water concentration to lower water concentration through a selectively permeable membrane. Selectively permeable membranesare very thin layers of material (cell membranes are selectively-permeable), which allow some molecules to pass through them but prevent other molecules from passing through. Cell membranes will allow small molecules like Oxygen, water, Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, Glucose, amino-acids, etc. to pass through. Cell membranes will not allow larger molecules like Sucrose, Starch, protein, etc. to pass through. In my experiment I will have a test tube with a potato chip in. The outside wall of the potato chip is selectively permeable so it lets water pass through it but not bigger molecules such as sucrose. In the test tubes I will put different concentrations of sucrose solution. When the concentration of the solution is lower than that in the potato, water will pass through the selectively permeable wall into the potato. Potato cells Sucrose solution The mass of the potato chip increases Sucrose molecule Water molecule When the sucrose solution is stronger outside if the potato chip water will move out from the potato chip into the solution. When the concentration is the same on both sides of the selectively permeable wall nothing passes through it and the mass will stay the same. Plan Apparatus Five test tubes Labels Ruler Scales Tissue... ...hips in each test tube. This would make it more accurate as when I had two in a test tube if one of them was a long way out it made the graph not follow the line well when I plotted the averages. There was one anomalous result at 0.5 mol. I think this was because we patted them dry when we got them out of the test tubes as we did not want to weigh there water on the outside of the potato but I think that we may not have dried them all equally so this anomalous result may have been due to it having water left on the outside of it. Also the potato itself was not from the same part of the potato and was not exactly the same size, although I did try to cut them to 36mm each. I could also try the same experiment but with different volumes of cell tissues and see if the percentage change differed with a bigger and smaller surface area. I could now investigate the smaller range near to 0.25 to see the sucrose concentration equivalent to the potato. Finally, I could extend the experiment to a more exact level by looking at the potato cylinders under a microscope, then I would be able to see the cells in greater detail and draw some more observational results.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In order to understand Peter SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"All Animals Are EqualÃ¢â¬ , one has to look at his viewpoint and perspective. Singer is a utilitarian, which is someone who believes that best outcome is something that causes that greatest amount of pleasure (or the least amount of pain) for the greatest number of people. However, in this definition the word Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ is used, as to mean only humans. This is the point that Singer is trying to argue. Who is to say that animals donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel pain or experience happiness? Singer believes in the equal consideration of interests, and that we should extend this basic principle to other species. In SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s first point on extending equal consideration, he poses the question, if a lesser intelligence cannot be used to morally discriminate against humans, then how can it be used to discriminate against animals? Singer explains that heÃ¢â¬â¢s not saying both groups should be treated exactly the same, because there are differences between species, therefore they should have different rights. Singer states, Ã¢â¬Å"The interests of every being affected by an action are to be taken into account and given the same weight as the like interests of any other beingÃ¢â¬ (LaFollette, 110). For a being to have interests, they must have the capability to enjoy life and suffer. He points out that any animal would have an interest in not being tormented, so it does not suffer. We could be sure that animals feel pain based on the fact that they show the same signs used by humans that show they feel pain. For example, if a person would to step on a dogÃ¢â¬â¢s tail he might bark, t he same as if a human had their hand slammed in the door they would yell. Singer brings up the issue of sexism and racism. No matter how we may try to look at it, not all humans are equal. He argues, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sex is no guide to his or her abilities, and this is why it is unjustifiable to discriminate on the basis of sexÃ¢â¬ (LaFollette, 109), and the same goes for racism Ã¢â¬â basing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities based on the color of their skin is just as absurd. Racism and sexism are both morally wrong, therefore so is speciesism. Another point the Singer brings up is how humans let their own interests take priority over other species. The fact that we eat animals shows that weÃ think of them as nothing more than a Ã¢â¬Å"means to our endsÃ¢â¬ . This is true because there are other, more nutritional, ways to meet our needs. By doing this we cause additional suffering for animals. Moreover, the cruel behavior that we put these animals through before they are killed for us to eat. Yet another type of discrimination we perform on these animals is experimentation to see the affects of substances and if they are safe on humans. Basically, animal experimentation and consumption is wrong except if we were willing to perform the same acts on a human with similar capabilities. Singer reasons that, Ã¢â¬Å"a full-grown horse or dog is beyond comparison a more rational, as well as a more conversable animal, than an infant of a day, or a week, or even a monthÃ¢â¬ (LaFollette, 110). He argues that if we cannot experiment on humans with severe brain damage or defective infants, then we should not experiment on animals. Furthermore, killing animals for food would be the same as killing these humans for food. Singer is saying that if instead of treating these defective infants that donÃ¢â¬â¢t stand a chance, we should use them to test medical treatments, which in the end is the greater good for more people. The last aspect of speciesism that Singer talks about is philosophers trying to draw a distinct, clear line between the equality of humans and animals. However, in order to include all humans it would have to be a broad generalized definition, which could not go without including some animals also. Though an infant may not have superior characteristics to that of a dog, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that we can research on the infant; though it is looked at as quite all right to do research on a dog. Singer presents a sound argument on the rights of animals. As I have pointed out, all of his premises are true, and well backed up. For the most part I agree with his argument, except for the point he made on experimenting with infants or disabled humans. Though he did present his point well and backed it up, that just seemed to be the most controversial statement. I can understand his point of view of experimenting on a perfectly healthy animal who can feel pain, so why not a person who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much of a future ahead, however I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with it. It comes down to quality of life. It might work as a hypothetical situation about some unknown infant, but whatÃ family would actually give up their child for experimentation? Or even a loved one who may be disabled? There is an emotional standpoint that I think Singer needs to address. Furthermore, I agree that since there are other means of getting the nutrition that we need, people should make an effort to eat less meat. Nonetheless, people will continue to eat meat due to the fact that they ignorant as to what exactly the animals go through before they are killed for us to eat. Personally, I believe that that is how people like it. Then that way they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to feel guilty every time they pick up a hamburger, and they can just go on enjoying it. This is a controversial topic, and Singer proved his point that animals should be extended the equality of consideration that a person shows his own species. LaFollette, Hugh. Ethics in Practice. Published 1997. Copyright 1997, 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Utilitarian Animal RightsÃ¢â¬ . April 20, 2004.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Freewill vs. Determinism Good vs. Evil What makes a decision evil is when it is made completely with regard to others. What makes a decision good is when the person who made it can look back and feel like what he choose was wholly right. It is completely up to a person whether or not they take others into consideration or even decide to look back long enough to care, just like it is up to that person to choose where they go in life. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s up the Ã¢â¬Å"good pathÃ¢â¬ or down the Ã¢â¬Å"evil pathÃ¢â¬ Ã isnÃ¢â¬â¢t predetermined by god, your bloodlines, or anything else.Kate chooses her life and decided not to care what others thought or felt and just did what she pleased. Caleb at first was convinced that he did bad thing because of what his mother was, that he would be evil because of her. Sam Hamilton was thought of being bad or evil when he came to Salinas due to the fact that he was Irish and he proved to be one of the kindest characters in the book. Sam would most likely be considered good by anyone who became acquainted with him. Even though he didn't do things they same way as those around him, he did what he looked back on as being right or good in his mind.He made choices and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let his circumstances rule his life. Even though he was poor and lived on infertile land he worked and tried to change things. He tried to make them the best that he could. When at that time most people believed that the Irish were belligerent drunks that were only good at stealing American jobs and wives. Sam Hamilton changed their views, as Louis told Adam when he brought him up to meet Sam, Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬â¢s a fine worker, and a good blacksmith. Ã¢â¬ Not only was he a fine worker when it came to inventing things and blacksmithing but he worked at helping others.As Adam Ã¢â¬Å"drew into himselfÃ¢â¬ Ã Sam tried his hardest to help him, Ã¢â¬Å"go through the motions,Ã¢â¬ and finally he ended up having to punch him and insult him to get the man out of his stupor. This violence, which was against his character, should how much he cared for others and Adam. Now if he follows the stereotype set for him he wouldn't have been the great person that we had read about in the book, he had the free will to make himself what he was. Now Kate would have to be the nearly the exact opposite of Sam. She is one of the best characters to illustrate the concept of good and vil. For most of here life Cathy did things that were evil because she thought that, Ã¢â¬Å"in the whole world there's only evil and folly,Ã¢â¬ so she had no problems embracing it. But just because she did embrace it and did so many bad things doesn't mean she was purely evil. She did towards the end of the book care about what someone thought about her, Ã¢â¬Å"she knew that she didn't want Aron to know. Ã¢â¬ And in that little time where he dreamed of Aron meeting her as a respectable lady in New York shows that at least one personÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion mattered to her.Kate just wasn't extremely pressured by what was expected of her in her circumstances. She in fact thought it better to defy others expectation, like when her parents wanted her to be a teacher, or when Adam tried to make her into the perfect wife. There were many times where she could have settled into a comfortable spot that others determined she fit into but she liked using her free will and choosing where she was going to go. Caleb is something slightly different than his mother, which I'm sure he and everyone else who read the book was happy to find out.He wanted to be able to look back on his actions and not be ashamed of what he had done. He hated doing the evil things so much when he was young that he prayed for the lord to help him Ã¢â¬Å"not be mean. Ã¢â¬ If determinism was solely true than he probably would have ended up being just as wicked as Kate, like Adam had worried when Cal was a baby. Lee helped a lot in keeping Caleb from following his worst expectatio ns and seeing that he did have a choice in the matter. That just because he had his mothers blood in him didn't mean he was filled with evil, as Lee said, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever you do, it will be you who do itÃ¢â¬ânot your mother. And I think that is exactly right. Kate wouldn't have felt the guilt like Cal did when his brother had died, nor would she have asked Adam for forgiveness. Nothing Caleb did was because of who his mom was. As Steinbeck says, there is only one story in the world; I have to say that I see his point. While good and evil are still a little abstract to from my point of view, it does seem that every story we hear has to do with it. It deals with the characters struggle to determine which side is evil and which side is good and than choosing between the two.With Cathy it seems she could only see the evil and therefore the choice was an easy one for her because she saw no other. Cal was luckier, or I guess some could say unluckier, because he could see both choices r ather clearly and in the end it seemed he was breaking away from the dark side. Now saying that I agree with SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view pretty much answers the question on what I think when it comes to free will versus determinism. To have to choice whether you lean towards a certain side you have to exert some version of your own free will either a little or a lot, either way you do.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Everyone wants to belong , to be accepted . This is a major reason why teenagers feel pressurized to go along with what others are doing the so called peer pressure. Teenagers are going through tremendous physical and emotional changes as they change from childhood to young adults . There are new responsibilities to be faced , exams to be taken and of course new relationships to be faced . There is rebellion against the rules and ideas that parents impose and so they flock together almost in desperation in some cases. As young people spend more time with their peers outside the family home there are opportunities to do things that they haven Ã¢â¬Ët done before such as trying out substances Ã¢â¬â drugs , alcohol and so on . Young people at this stage in their lives often feel very insecure Ã¢â¬â are the changes that are happening to them normal ? Why haven Ã¢â¬Ët they got bigger breasts a longer penis , a boy /girl friend and all the rest ? They may even be unsure of their sexual orientation By giving in to peer pressure and uniting in a common `uniform Ã¢â¬Ë whether of clothing or language they feel stronger and more normal , and meeting with others going through similar problems reinforces their egos , even though this may go against the norms of society in general. As they mature , obtain jobs , move away from the area in which they grew up perhaps , the effects of peer pressure will diminish . see more:essay on peer pressure They will hopefully realize that misusing drugs is not a good thing . Gradually , as they become surer of themselves , most people feel able to make their own decisions as to which music they prefer , clothes to be worn , even their opinions on world issues will be less affected by what their friends think or do . They will make their own decisions about taking drugs or getting drunk . They will feel accepted for who they are , what they are capable of , and though peer pressure continues to affect most people to some extent its effects tend to lessen as maturity occursÃ¢â¬ ¦ Peer pressure has a very strong influence on our decisions; so it is capable of bringing about great change, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s for the good or the bad of the situation or person. Peer pressure exists for all ages. Pre-teens and teenagers face many issues related to conformity and peer pressure. They are pulled between the desire to be seen as individuals of unique value and the desire to belong to a group where they feel secure and accepted. The result is that often teens reject family or general society values, while feeling pressure to conform rigidly to the values of their peer Your peers are the people with whom you identify and spend time. In children and teens, they are usually, but not always, of the same age group. In adults, peers may be determined less by age and more by shared interests or professions. Peer pressure occurs when an individual experiences implied or expressed persuasion to adopt similar values, beliefs, and goals, or to participate in the same activities as those in the peer group. Peer groups have so much influence, especially with adolescents, because, nomatter how inappropriate it seems to adults, belonging to a group really doesgive something significant to the young person. Peer groups provide a placewhere children feels accepted, where they can feel good about themselves, andwhere their self-esteem is enhanced. Some psychologists also point out thatlife become simpler when we conform to expectations. Young people tend to gravitate toward other young people with the same problems and in the same situations as themselves and where they feel they will be understood and accepted.There is a very, very strong need to satisfy that thirst for unity and for acceptance. The feeling of belonging is a very powerful force that can outweigh ties to church, school, family, or community. In addition to the feeling of belonging and not being alone or socially isolated, some characteristics that peer groups offer which make them attractive and that families may lack are: (1) a strong belief structure; (2) a clear system of rules; and (3) communication and discussion about taboo subjects suchas drugs, sex, and religion. Read more: http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/76/Peer-pressure.html#ixzz2KMutEDRZ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/negative-and-positive-effects-of-peer-pressure.html
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Well first what is culture and how do you define it? It can be defined in many ways like what I think it is. Culture to me is the way we as a people are perceived by others. If you take that outlook and put it to a company say like BMW it merges nicely. What goes through your mind when you see someone driving in a BMW? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re like most people a number of things and it can be anything thing like nice car, they got money, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s his job, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ But most the time when someone sees a BMW on the road they associate with some form of being successful. That I my eyes is a direct impact on a culture and in retune it impacts the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. How you ask? Well let me see if I can explain it the way see it. BMW has been a status symbol for as long as I can remember and longer early to mid-70Ã¢â¬â¢s. Today even more so and that makes people want to own one. Which makes them strive harder to be successful and in return makes the economy grow and that raises the bay in our culture as a people. The impact on that company makes them grow, build higher quality products and so forth. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big circle, the better we do the better they do. The more the company grows the better it is for our culture by make more jobs that boost the economy which boosts the way we fell about ourselves and that directly affects our culture. But it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop they companies like BMW do more than make cars and jobs. They are pioneers of technology, safety innovations and many other things. One of the down falls of this can be said that it is taking the American out of being American. What I mean by that is that we are striving to own an import car not an American car. Cause to me there is nothing like being American and driving a big horse power American v8 muscle car. (I own a BMW M5 Funny right!) But at least I got the v8 right. One other down fall to that as for our culture is that by BMW being such a status symbol many people do resort to desperate act to obtain that status. And that bring a negative aspect to our culture. I remember working at Academy Sports a several years ago. I was one of the first at this store I even built the store (us on the build team) then stayed on as an associate. Saw many store managers come and go. With each one they left a mark on the way we did things in the store. We went form overnight receiving and stocking at the being to coming in early and finally to doing it during work hours. Each manager also had their own way they wanted the store to look, people act, way we greeted consumers, and even dress codes. Every one changed the leader roles around till they found what worked for the way they wanted thing done. So you could say in the process of 2 years I got culture shock about 4 times. So thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one of my dealings with culture change within an organization among many others. Reference: bmwgroup.com
Friday, September 13, 2019
Considering Cases Concerning to Gathering Information, Types of Evidence - Assignment Example The written contract or will upon which an action is based is real evidence both to prove its terms and that it was executed by the defendant. If it is written in a faltering and shaky hand, it may also be relevant to show that the writer was under duress at the time of its execution. The bloody clothes, the murder weapon, a crumpled automobile, the scene of an accidentÃ¢â¬âall are samples of what may be considered to be real evidence. To be admissible, real evidence, like all evidence, must be relevant, material, and competent. Establishing these three basic prerequisites is called laying a foundation. The relevance and materiality of real evidence are usually obvious. Its competence is established by showing that it really is what it is supposed to be. Proving that real or other evidence is what it purports to be is called authentication. Tex. Evid. Code Ã §401; Fed. Rules Evid. Ã §901. Real evidence may be authenticated in three ways--by identification of a unique object, by identification of an object that has been made unique, and by establishing a chain of custody. You only have to be able to use one of these ways, though it is prudent to prepare to use an alternate method in case the court is not satisfied with the one you have chosen. Tex. Evid. Code Ã §301; Fed. Rules Evid. Ã §Ã §901, 902, 903.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Management , society and new forms of work - Essay Example As such, Marazzi divided his thoughts on the subject of capital and language in four chapters: the transformation of economy from Post-Fordism to the New Economy, an account of the dot-com crash in 2001, the monetization of surplus value and the current trends, or the War Economy, in the business cycle as economic crisis continues to generate havoc throughout the global economies. The changes in working practices and patterns through the transition from Post-Fordism to the New Economy arose in the late 1980s and were fully established with the flourish of dot.com companies of the 1990s. The period of the dot-com bubble or the Information technology Bubble was marked by the formation of new Internet-based companies that maximized the use of steady commercial growth of the Internet. Several companies invested in ______________________ 1Haiven, M. 2009. In-Credible Wealth and Panic in the Ã¢â¬Å"New EconomyÃ¢â¬ . Criticism. 51 (1): 165. using the e-prefix which increased the confidenc e of stock prices and future profits. Unfortunately, the bubble collapsed in early 2000s as large portion of market capitalization of numerous companies failed or declined dramatically2. With Post-Fordism being agreed as the transformation of the nature of work, the New Economy settles on the importance of finance specifically on the stock market. Marazzi relates work and finance through language by stating, Ã¢â¬ ¦in the New Economy language and communication are structurally and contemporaneously present throughout both the sphere of the production and distribution of goods and services and the sphere of finance, and that it is for this very reason that changes in the world of work and modifications in the financial markets must be seen as two sides of the same coin3. Post-Fordism produces numerous goods and services that are set to the diversification of commercialized values and way of life. However, the centrality of communications and information technology in the United State s and other Western countries has delivered a new breed of expensive managers and technicians. Increased worker participation and elastic work schedules are applied in production to maximize efficiency and flexibility while eroding job security through the employment of contract and outsourced labour4. Finance was first examined by the author, from its beginnings to the concerns of the ______________________ 2Lowenstein, R. 2004. Origins of the Crash: The Great Bubble and its Undoing. Penguin Books. p. 114. 3Marazzi, C. 2008. Capital & Language: From New Economy to War Economy. Semiotext(e). p. 14. 4Holland, J. 2005. Fordism/Post-Fordism. Globalization & Autonomy Glossary. p. 2. http://globalautonomy.ca/global1/servlet/Glossarypdf?id=CO.0021 (Accessed November 9, 2012). financialisation of the economy. He noted that if savings had been focused in household economies before, the New Economy has shifted this habit into using the collective savings and pension schemes of individuals as investments for their financial future. In the past, labour was affected by economic crises through the loss of jobs and the cutback of public spending. However, labour is now directly invested in the performance capital making contemporary financial crises different from past ones. Hence,
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Why I want to be an officer in the US army - Essay Example The US Army is founded upon seven principles i.e. Personal Courage, Integrity, Honor, Selfless Service, Respect, Duty and Loyalty. (US Army Manuals, 2008)Soldiers are taught about these values during training and they soon form part of their lives as they carry out their duties. Because I share in the desire to acquire and live according to these values, then I believe that the US Army would be the right place for me. In the civilian world, many people are familiar with all the latter values; however, very few of them actually embrace them as part of their lives. Most of them may consider these values as theoretical ones and rarely do they adhere to all of them. However, US Army officers are different in this regard. This is because the seven Army values are part of what they are. All US Army officers are expected to bear allegiance to the Army, the US constitution and to their fellow soldiers. Loyalty as an army value is first and foremost directed to the country and its heritage. In theory, this may seem like a relatively easy thing to do. However, there is much that has to be considered in the execution of this value. For instance, when soldiers are out in combat and they are heading towards a location that they may not be sure of, it is essential for these officers to demonstrate their loyalty to the Army by obeying the directions of their Captain. This should be the case regardless of objections that other soldiers may have against the Captain's opinion. (US Army, 2008) In order to be loyal, it is necessary for one to actually bear witness to the US Army ideals. This normally means that one has to be willing to devote oneself to the Army and to other persons in the Army. This is usually displayed by a deep respect and support for one's leaders and colleagues. Every Army soldier can contribute towards the greater good of the institution by carrying out their part. There is only one thing that can prepare an individual to engage or participate in something that poses a serious risk of death. This is having great loyalty to ones country. Such officers usually pledge allegiance to their country and their constitution even when it might cause them great harm or even loss of their lives. To me, there is nothing that can show one's loyalty to their country like sacrificing one's own life for it. While it may be a fact that not all US Army officers are at risk of loss of life, one cannot ignore the fact that it can happen. Consequently, one ought to be ready for this. Source; http://www.cbc.ca/ A memorial for fallen soldiers in the war in Iraq; the latter illustration shows some of the prices that the US has to pay to defend their deals. It may be a scary thing for many people to work in the army because many are wary of its unpredictability. In fact, this is the sole reason why so many people opt not to join the Army. However, the same situation does not apply to me. I have a deep respect and love for my country. My loyalty is so immense to the point that I can be willing to put up with so much just so that I can secure a better life for my generation. Many great leaders in history had to make sacrifices because if they had not chosen to do so, then our nation would not be as it is today. The ideals that hold America today must be protected at all costs and if it takes some injuries or a life to prove this point, then so be it. The US Army is the best place to serve when one has such utmost respect and loyalty for their
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Home buying process and its financial impacts - Essay Example Buying a house can be the largest amount invested or spent upon any asset by the individual and so a careful investigation is necessary about the pros and cons of a home buying process 1. What are some common opportunity costs associated with the selection of housing? While selecting a house which an individual wants to buy he/she takes into consideration the apartment or the house first and then the individual also takes a look at the residential area in which he plans to dwell. However selecting the option of housing means that the individual has to bear some underlying costs or in some cases has to let out some opportunities in his/her way. In one word it can be termed as opportunity costs undergone during the process of housing. While buying a house it is compulsory that a fair amount needs to be given out as down payment. The individual has to pay a considerable sum of money as security deposit even with the consideration of renting an apartment. In both the cases one has to let out the savings interest that could have been earned the money being kept in a bank. The brokerage fee is another cost involved looking for a house which could have been spent elsewhere. If the house selected is few miles away from the workplace the individual has to take the pain of a long journey every day. In case the individual is renting a house he is losing out the advantages of tax obtained from buying a house. But at the same time the person has to bear sufficient trouble to build a house of his choice and needs (Kapoor, 2009, p. 272). 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of owning a home? Home Ownership has been considered as the rational form for housing with more than 70% of the British households having houses in their list of assets. Such ownership statistics for the year 1991 reveal 59% for USA and 40% for Switzerland. Home ownership is advantageous as houses are saleable assets. Increasing market value of homes has enhanced this merit. It also eliminates the trouble of monthly rental payments. Statistical evidences suggest that homeowners are much better than individuals renting an apartment. But the disadvantage is that few people have the money for buying a home and they go for borrowing options or mortgage. This is again a liability. Owning a home involves maintenance costs unlike renting where landlord bears all the cost for renting (Gordon, n.d). 3. How can the quality of a school system benefit even homeowners in a community who do not have school-age children? A recent study has shown that home owners send their teenage children to school more frequently than those parents living in rented apartments. Behavioral characteristics of homeowners have been attributed to this fact. Homeowners are mostly financial stable and from good background who do not tolerate bad behavior of their children. Again the findings reveal that residential stability has a positive impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. There appears to be a positive rela tion between homeownership and educational outcomes. Renting individuals may change their houses quite often which in turn lead to changing schools keeping in mind the distance factor. This is not the case for home owners. Changing schools prove detrimental to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s education (Social Benefits of Homeownership and Stable Housing, 2010). 4. What factors affect a person's ability to qualify for a mortgage? Any bank or financial institution while mortgaging a house from an individual does a careful assessment of his/her gross income. The amount offered on mortgage depends a lot on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s gross income. Hence first of all a person needs to be financially stable in order to qualify for mortgage. Sudden inheritance of a large sum of money can also be favorable for qualification. Some institutions also prefer to see the loan history of the individual before giving out the mortgage amount. This is done to prevent default risks. In recent times many mortgage product s have come up in housing markets easing the process of
Monday, September 9, 2019
Macroeconomic in Finance - Essay Example These models also highlight the interrelatedness of variables in the economy, which is one of the core concepts in contemporary macroeconomics. Explain how the effectiveness of both fiscal and monetary policy is dependent on the sensitivity of money demand to the interest rate in the closed-economy. Explain how other factors may also impact on policy effectiveness. Monetary policy is "the government or central bank process of managing the money supply to achieve specific goals such as constraining inflation, maintaining an exchange rate, achieving full employment, or economic growth." The monetary policy tools refer to the policy tools of the central bank used to affect the money supply and interest rates such as open market operations, changes in the discount rates, and changes in the reserve requirements (Mishkin 2004). It should be noted that the effectiveness of all these policies rests on the relationship between money supply and interest rate. Accordingly, an increase in the money supply tends to bring a reduction in the interest rate while a decrease in money supply brings about a rise in interest rates. It is notable that without affecting the interest rate, monetary policy renders no effect on the economy. For example, a government wishing to eliminate unemployment pursues an expansionary monetary policy lowering the reserve ratio. Th is in effect will lead to excess reserve rates and encourages bank lending while increasing the money supply. Since interest rate is inversely related with money supply, interest rate falls which encourages investment. Aggregate demand increases and unemployment is reduced or eliminated through the creation of
Vulnerable populations in Health Care - Assignment Example People who are chronically ill may have respiratory diseases, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and heart disease which have sustained for longer periods of time and resulted to alterations in health or disability. Between 2000 and 2004, 87% of the U.S. population ages 65 years old and older have one or more chronic conditions while those below the age of 65 approximately 35%-45% of the U.S. population have at least one chronic medical condition (The American Journal of Managed Care, 2006, 348). Thus, people ages 65 years old and older are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and disability. Research suggest that mortality from chronic diseases is common among men while more physical restrictions due to a chronic illness are more likely to experience by women (August & Sorkin, 2010, 1834). Men gained a lot of health benefits from social integration but it is also the social-relatedness of a man that predisposes him to chronic diseases as a result of risky health behaviors such as smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and substance abuse. Women, on the other hand, are more eager to have health-related knowledge, more likely to monitor own health status, and less likely to engage in risky health behaviors (August & Sorkin, 2010, 1834). Thus, men are more vulnerable to chronic conditions and disability compared to women. Living with a chronic condition and suffering from disability are the realities for majority of the population in the United States; however, chronic illnesses prevalence varies across racial and ethnic groups. Minority populations include African Americans, Hispanic, and Native Americans while the Caucasians are the majority population. Racial and ethnic minorities are more vulnerable to chronic illness and experience greater complications and higher death rates compared to the majority population (Gallant, Spitze & Grove, 2010, 21).