Friday, September 6, 2019

Touch Interfaces Essay Example for Free

Touch Interfaces Essay Introduction Pointing at an object is the most basic human interaction, which is very important in human-machine interfaces. Similarly, creating gestures such as using ones hand and arm can provide information. For instance, pointing to a chair indicates asking for permission to sit down or pointing to indicate directions. The main goal of all the research done on touch interface and gesture recognition is to develop a system that can identify specific human gestures using human touch and use them to interact with Software application. Humans habitually use gesture to interact with other humans. Gestures can be used for everything such as pointing at an object for attention to conveying information about space and temporal characteristics [1]. Biologists define gesture, as the notion of gesture is to embrace all kinds of instances where an individual engages in movements whose communicative intent is paramount, manifest, and openly acknowledged [2]. Gestures that are related with speech are called gesticulation and gestures that are independent from speech are called autonomous gesture. Autonomous gestures have its own communicative language such as American Sign Language (ASL) as well as motion commands. There are many other types of gestures such as Semiotic – communicating meaning, Ergotic – manipulating objects and Epistemic – groping. There are six types of semiotic gestures and they are Symbolic (arbitrary), Deictic (pointing), Iconic (descriptive), Pantomimic (use of invisible objects), Beat (indicating flow of speech) and Cohesive (marker indicating related topics) [3]. Symbolic or Arbitrary gestures are gestures that can be learned but are not common in a culture setting and can be very useful because they can be specifically created for use of device control. An example is the set of gestures used for airport plane control. Deictic gestures are used to point at important objects and these gestures can be specific that refers to one object, in general that refers to class of object, or functions that symbolize intentions. An example is a simple hand gestures such as pointing to ones mouth when he or she is hungry. Related Technologies Today, there exist many image-based or device-based hardware techniques, which can be used as touch interface. For example, an image-based technique can detect gesture by capturing pictures of users hand motions gesture via camera. The captured image is then sent to Computer-vision software, which tracks the image and identifies the gesture. For instance, television sets that can be controlled by hand gesture instead of a remote control have been developed [4] [5] [6]. Basically, to turn the TV on, the user raises his open hand and the computer recognizes the gesture, which in return turns the TV on. Device-based techniques such as instrumented gloves, stylus and other position trackers have been developed, which recognize the movements and send the signals so that the system can understand the gesture. For example, Dexterous Handmaster [7] developed in 1987, initially used to control robot hand, which was very accurate but was not suitable for rapid movement. Power Glove [7] developed in 1989 by Mattel, which was resistive ink sensors for finger position, plus ultrasonic tracking and the Space Glove [7] developed in 1991, which was a plastic rings around fingers. Other gloves such as 5DT Data GloveTM [7], SuperGlove [7], Pinch Gloves [7] and CyberGlove [7]. However, the latest in computer technology is the G-Speak Gestural Technology System [8], a glove which is faster and easier to use compared to mouse and keyboard and using it one can move anything anywhere on the screen. At present, there exist many products, which are closely related with the hypothesis of this thesis. For example, the GyroPoint is a product of Gyration, Inc. in Saratoga, CA [9] [10]. The device can operate in two different modes. First, it can operate as a regular mouse and second, it can operate in the air (3D). Another example, the Bluewand, [11] which is a small pen-like device used to control Bluetooth enabled devices by hand-movements. Basically, a 6-axis accelerometer and gyroscope system detects devices full direction and movement in space. Bluewand can be used with verity of applications such as remote control for TV-set, cell-phone, MP3-player, etc. Overview of the Technology (Touch Interfaces) The ability to touch a computer screen and manipulate objects or control is a advance way of communication between human and computers and due to this advancement many types of touch system is developed such as point-of-sale systems, to information kiosks, to electronic whiteboards, iPod, iPhone etc. However, these systems have different ways of implementation in different applications. For example, using a desktop display for touch input as well as pen input, recognizing finger for touch on the screen. Other ways of implementation are such as Gesture recognition is a process through which a computer can recognize human gesture. Such interaction can make interface with computer more accessible and expressive for both the physically impaired and for young children who might find this type of interaction more natural. Gestures can be used in applications such as word processing, hand sign language, games, entertainment and educational approaches. There are other forms of gesture recognition than hand gestures. For example, finger pointing a way to select or move objects around, face tracking, eye motion and lip reading, etc. Technology that implements gestures has the ability to change the way humans interact with computers by eliminating input devices such as joysticks, mice and keyboards. Lots of conventional whole-hand input devices creates interface using non-contact methods or through some physical medium and such interfaces often needs contact of the hands and fingers with a hard, firm surface. As displays get larger, multi-user interaction is important as well as the ability to recognize two or more simultaneous inputs. As a result, wall-size touch displays became important for users as it enables to work with computer application and in the future human-body sized interfaces will become a natural way of interaction with the multiple users. Other related system is â€Å"A Camera-Based Touch Interface for Pervasive Displays† [13] developed by Gerald D. Morrison. Basically, the system contains smart camera in the corners of a 17-foot-wide wall display to determine the location of an object in front of, or in contact with, the display. The main object the user’s finger and the collected image are processed in such a way that it can recognize various attributes of the object’s, such as location relative to the display in three dimensional space. The information sent back to computer which generates the display, enabling touch control. Advantages of such system Many companies have established research centers all over the world to conduct research in developing new technologies. They emphasizes on managing its process in order to deliver product that are cheap and fast maintaining a good Information Management strategy. Manipulation of information using different applications and technologies became a potential information overload for many similar companies. Hence taking advantage of the new advance technologies to manage and maintain the information overload. Other advantages are such as having to interact with software application more closely compared t traditional ways of interactions. The term software was used in the early days of the software engineering field. It was used to describe how the rapid increase in computational power and the complexity of problems which now could be tackled. It refers to the difficulty of writing correct, understandable and variable computer programs. Having touch interface will help developer to interact with developing tools to developed advance software application. Today in the 21st century software is every where imaginable, when you check out at the grocery store, using a credit card, driving your car or listening to music in your new MP3 player just to name a few. Software development has undergone a change from its early days, the awareness of the software crisis has forced engineers to address the problems by various processes and methodologies and the industry are realizing that changing to more efficient ways of communicate with computers lead to better products with higher quality and reduced costs. However, there is always a problem that the tools and techniques invented today will need time to mature, to be introduced into industry.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The security implications of the system will be strong in order to assure safety for both the user and the system using finer print recognition. The main security issue such as data access must be implemented in such a way that the privilege given to the user is controlled and manipulated. Controlling the web-browsing habit such as browsing illegal or unwanted web sites need also to be controlled, hence providing user access to email, web sites using password and encryptions is essential. Keeping off the malicious users from accessing valuable company information and other external information that can be used against the company stuff and the company authorities needs to be taken under consideration. Sending emails and other attachments must be allowed according to hierarchy of access permissions. Other issues that need to be taken under consideration are such as the network password and security tokens needs to be changed constantly and most off all securing the connection to local devices that are connected to the network such as print servers and touch screen connected printers. Routers and switches should be organize and installed as securely as possible and web based configuration should be disabled as well as network access to the devices should be limited to the Grenada networks. To have a perfectly feasible operation and conduct the most proper ethical business functions is the first priority for most companies and businesses. The most critical issue related with IT is IT security where the objective is to take effective measures to decrease the threats exist today in IT related business such as e-commerce. Today, most companies prefer electronic information over traditional ways of storing and manipulation of information. Data are stored in huge database and process using different front-end software’s form anywhere in the world. IT security is made up of three main categories and they are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. Confidentiality is when company or an organization has sensitive information and does not want to disclose such information to anyone outside the company. Integrity is when companies want to update the system to adapt to future needs. As for availability, it is when a business implements a system it needs to make sure the system is up and running when needed. Threats such as customer’s information can be disclosed which can affect the credibility of any company; company’s information can be hacked by illegally, etc. There are many ways to improve the correct securities such as protecting data and information using different sophisticated firewall software, understanding threats and its impact in order to be protected forms it, calculating risk and deciding how to eradicate such risk. There are two basic ways to improve security and they are Bottom Up and Top Down. Bottom Up approach is not that precise but in order to implement such approach it is advisable to properly understand company policies, network topology and companies operating procedure. Top Down approach is methodical and more precise compared to Bottom Up approach but is slow and expensive. The main advantages of the touch interface are that it is centralized where it can access its information from using human touch. Therefore, if there are any security issues it can be dealt with using by tracking the finger-print. It is also flexible and scalable enough for new technologies to integrate with the system. Many flexible system and architecture can be designed so that it can be interoperable making all components work together in a synchronized fashion. This system can be used to backup critical information which is vital for both the system and the end-user. Conclusion As the information age advanced the need for computers became a daily part of human life. Computers have emerged from early abacus, papyrus and ENIAC to today’s main frame computer and super computers that can manipulate huge amount of information across the globe. The use of Touch screen was discovered by military in order to share information and after the first dial up connection; the use of touch screen became popular amongst local public. Today, computers are the most essential part of human life starting from basic calculators to storing and manipulating of terabits of information. Use of Touch screen is mostly possible if one uses computers or other devices such as mobiles. Need for speedy information has become an important issue in today’s business. Using such devices Touch screen caused a revolution in our society. Peoples shopping style is also changing because of Touch screen. Selling products over the touch screen is cheap, fast and easy for both the company and the customer. Hence issues such as privacy and ethics are most important and needs to be concentrated on by the governments and education institute. Many of the ethical issues involve privacy. For example, privacy concerning e-mail uses by the employees, head office of a company and individuals. System such as malleable surface interface [12] can be used in applications that require physically touching the screen and its objects performed by the human hands or finger, such as sculpting and massage. Even though, many touch technology systems are suitable for small displays such as iPod, iPhone, the system can be also used in big screen such TV, or directly interacting with the pc monitor. This way of communication is very attractive because they are more versatile than other input devices as well as can be made inexpensively. While touch sensing is very common but having multi user interaction has become more essential. Having to interact with a system with more than one finger at a time useful for larger interaction scenarios such as interactive walls and tabletops. Many researchers experimenting with a wide variety of application scenarios and communication modalities that utilize multi-touch input. It is a rich area for research, and has potential for advances in efficiency, usability, and intuitiveness of the future UI designed. Today there exist mobiles with touch screen and stroke interfaces as compared to those with button, thumbwheel, trackballs, and stylus etc interfaces. The traditional ways of interaction for example using buttons, and cognitively arbitrated by the need to roll a wheel to scroll the cursor focus kept us distance with the technology invented. Hence, to touch something would be to minimize the distance between human and the computer. Using gesture similar to Nintendo Wii, is a breakthrough in advancement of GUI. Other devices such as LG Prada, HTC phone and Apple iPhone help us to use our fingers to feel the system rather just using the system. The touch system is already been used in wireless devices successfully. Wireless communications offer organizations and users many benefits such as portability, flexibility and lower installation costs. Wireless technologies cover a broad range of capabilities toward different uses and needs. Wireless local area network (WLAN) devices, for instance, allow users to move their laptops from place to place within their offices and homes without the need for wires and without losing network connectivity. However, risks are natural in any wireless technology. The most significant source of risks in wireless networks is that the technology’s underlying communications medium such as the airwave, is open to intruders. Having touch screen developers and interact and develop application using advance GUI’s. Today, touch screen technology is used everywhere to cut down cost as well as speed up the development process by keeping the quality of the application insured. Touch screen based development helps to build software applications by connecting multiple components together which are produced independently. In order for this communication to take place we must have an interface between the components in such a way that is helps to develop the overall application as well as implementing it in the future applications. However, it is the compatibility between connected component interfaces that determines the success of the implementation of the components. To be precise, an interface is made of number of operations which can be manipulated by the user. The operations play a vast role in implementing the interface and use of the interface by the client or the user. Today, Internet is a good way of doing business and use of internet is constantly increasing. Improving the GUI and converting to touch screen will become very important in the future for the use of World Wide Web because it helps to communicate globally and deliver products to customers who can not purchase the products. It also helps to increases advertising and by providing one to one marketing. E-commerce is a very easy way of gathering information form its customers or potential customers. One of the biggest advantages of using the internet is its efficient ways of reducing warehousing and inventory. A Company needs a network that provides fast and efficient way to manipulate its information. Compared to its traditional manual filing system accessing, touch screen will provide information with speed, accuracy, and accessibility. A sophisticated design of the system will allow access from anywhere in the world which helps to manipulate and send information through the world. Hence, the touch screen is reliable in assuring speed, data reliability, cheap and strong security. However, it is extremely reliable and main important thing is that no extra input device is needed. Touch screen gives fast and superior performance which is sufficient for file sharing, gaming, and high-speed access. As for security, touch screen will have software application that recognizes finger print. Traditional GUI and access can be three or four times expensive compared to touch screen. A both traditional ways and touch screen can be a good option for any company depending on the difficulty of accessing the information the company. However, touch screen is easier to install, more reliable and mobility is excellent where as traditional is more difficult to install with limited mobility. Reference [1].  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A Brief Overview of Gesture Recognition by Charles Cohen. ; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [2]   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jean-Luc Nespoulous, Paul Perron, and Andre Roch Lecours. The Biological Foundations of Gestures: Motor and Semiotic Aspects. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, MJ, 1986.; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [3].   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   GESTURE BASED INTERACTION; Steven Damer;; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [4]   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Computer Vision for Computer Interaction SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics magazine, November 1999 W. T. Freeman, P. A. Beardsley, H. Kage, K. Tanaka, K. Kyuma, C. D. Weissman. Also available as MERL-TR99-36. [5]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Computer Vision for Interactive Computer Graphics; IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-June 1998; W. T. Freeman, D. B. Anderson, P. A. Beardsley, C. N. Dodge, M. Roth, C. D. Weissman, W. S. Yerazunis, H. Kage, K. Kyuma, Y. Miyake, and K. Tanaka. Also available as MERL-TR99-02. [6]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Computer Vision for Computer Games In 2nd International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Killington, VT, USA. IEEE. W. T. Freeman, K. Tanaka, J. Ohta, K. Kyuma . Also available as MERL-TR96-35. [7]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gesture Based Interaction; Steven Damer;; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [8]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gesture Glove Not Science Fiction;   LOS ANGLEES, Aug. 23, 2005;; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [9]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An Evaluation of Two Input Devices for Remote Pointing; Scott MacKenzie and Shaidah Jusoh; ; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [10]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gyration, Inc., Saratoga, California. ; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [11]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bluewand. A versatile remote control and pointing device; Thomas Fuhrmann , Markus Klein, and Manuel Odendahl; ; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [12]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Florian Vogt, Timothy Chen, Reynald Hoskinson, Sidney Fels; A Malleable Surface Touch Interface; Human Communication Technologies Laboratory; The University of British Columbia;; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007 [13]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gerald D. Morrison; A Camera-Based Touch Interface for Pervasive Displays; SMART Technologies Inc., 1207 – 11 Ave. SW, Suite 300, Calgary, AB, Canada T3C 0M5;; Accessed 7th, Nov, 2007;

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